Distributed Process Management

Chapter 14

Process Migration
• Transfer of sufficient amount of the state of a process from one machine to another • The process executes on the target machine

• Load sharing
– Move processes from heavily loaded to lightly load systems – Load can be balanced to improve overall performance

• Communications performance
– Processes that interact intensively can be moved to the same node to reduce communications cost – May be better to move process to where the data reside when the data is large

• Availability
– Long-running process may need to move because the machine it is running on will be down

• Utilizing special capabilities
– Process can take advantage of unique hardware or software capabilities

Initiation of Migration
• Operating system
– When goal is load balancing

• Process
– When goal is to reach a particular resource

What is Migrated?
• Must destroy the process on the source system and create it on the target system • Process control block and any links must be moved

What is Migrated?
• Eager (all):Transfer entire address space
– No trace of process is left behind – If address space is large and if the process does not need most of it, then this approach my be unnecessarily expensive

What is Migrated?
• Precopy: Process continues to execute on the source node while the address space is copied
– Pages modified on the source during precopy operation have to be copied a second time – Reduces the time that a process is frozen and cannot execute during migration

What is Migrated?
• Eager (dirty): Transfer only that portion of the address space that is in main memory and have been modified
– Any additional blocks of the virtual address space are transferred on demand – The source machine is involved throughout the life of the process

What is Migrated?
• Copy-on-reference: Pages are only brought over on reference
– Variation of eager (dirty) – Has lowest initial cost of process migration

What is Migrated?
• Flushing: Pages are cleared from main memory by flushing dirty pages to disk
– Relieves the source of holding any pages of the migrated process in main memory

Negotiation of Migration
• Migration policy is responsibility of Starter utility • Starter utility is also responsible for long-term scheduling and memory allocation • Decision to migrate must be reached jointly by two Starter processes (one on the source and one on the destination)

• System evict a process that has been migrated to it • If a workstation is idle, process may have been migrated to it
– Once the workstation is active, it may be necessary to evict the migrated processes to provide adequate response time

Distributed Global States
• Operating system cannot know the current state of all process in the distributed system • A process can only know the current state of all processes on the local system • Remote processes only know state information that is received by messages
– These messages represent the state in the past

• Bank account is distributed over two branches • The total amount in the account is the sum at each branch • At 3 PM the account balance is determined • Messages are sent to request the information


• If at the time of balance determination, the balance from branch A is in transit to branch B • The result is a false reading


• All messages in transit must be examined at time of observation • Total consists of balance at both branches and amount in message

• If clocks at the two branches are not perfectly synchronized • Transfer amount at 3:01 from branch A • Amount arrives at branch B at 2:59 • At 3:00 the amount is counted twice


Some Terms
• Channel
– Exists between two processes if they exchange messages

• State
– Sequence of messages that have been sent and received along channels incident with the process

Some Terms
• Snapshot
– Records the state of a process

• Global state
– The combined state of all processes

• Distributed Snapshot
– A collection of snapshots, one for each process

Global State

Global State

Distributed Snapshot Algorithm

Mutual Exclusion Requirements
• Mutual exclusion must be enforced: only one process at a time is allowed in its critical section • A process that hales in its noncritical section must do so without interfering with other processes • It must not be possible for a process requiring access to a critical section to be delayed indefinitely: no deadlock or starvation

Mutual Exclusion Requirements
• When no process is in a critical section, any process that requests entry to its critical section must be permitted to enter without delay • No assumptions are made about relative process speeds or number of processors • A process remains inside its critical section for a finite time only

Centralized Algorithm for Mutual Exclusion
• One node is designated as the control node • This node control access to all shared objects • If control node fails, mutual exclusion breaks down

Distributed Algorithm
• All nodes have equal amount of information, on average • Each node has only a partial picture of the total system and must make decisions based on this information • All nodes bear equal responsibility for the final decision

Distributed Algorithm
• All nodes expend equal effort, on average, in effecting a final decision • Failure of a node, in general, does not result in a total system collapse • There exits no systemwide common clock with which to regulate the time of events

Ordering of Events
• Events must be order to ensure mutual exclusion and avoid deadlock • Clocks are not synchronized • Communication delays • State information for a process is not up to date

Ordering of Events
• Need to consistently say that one event occurs before another event • Messages are sent when want to enter critical section and when leaving critical section • Time-stamping
– Orders events on a distributed system – System clock is not used

• Each system on the network maintains a counter which functions as a clock • Each site has a numerical identifier • When a message is received, the receiving system sets is counter to one more than the maximum of its current value and the incoming time-stamp (counter)

• If two messages have the same timestamp, they are ordered by the number of their sites • For this method to work, each message is sent from one process to all other processes
– Ensures all sites have same ordering of messages – For mutual exclusion and deadlock all processes must be aware of the situation

Token-Passing Approach
• Pass a token among the participating processes • The token is an entity that at any time is held by one process • The process holding the token may enter its critical section without asking permission • When a process leaves its critical section, it passes the token to another process

Deadlock in Resource Allocation
• • • • Mutual exclusion Hold and wait No preemption Circular wait

Deadlock Prevention
• Circular-wait condition can be prevented by defining a linear ordering of resource types • Hold-and-wait condition can be prevented by requiring that a process request all of its required resource at one time, and blocking the process until all requests can be granted simultaneously

Deadlock Avoidance
• Distributed deadlock avoidance is impractical
– Every node must keep track of the global state of the system – The process of checking for a safe global state must be mutually exclusive – Checking for safe states involves considerable processing overhead for a distributed system with a large number of processes and resources

Distributed Deadlock Detection
• Each site only knows about its own resources
– Deadlock may involve distributed resources

• Centralized control – one site is responsible for deadlock detection • Hierarchical control – lowest node above the nodes involved in deadlock • Distributed control – all processes cooperate in the deadlock detection function

Deadlock in Message Communication
• Mutual Waiting
– Deadlock occurs in message communication when each of a group of processes is waiting for a message from another member of the group and there are no messages in transit

Deadlock in Message Communication
• Unavailability of Message Buffers
– Well known in packet-switching data networks – Example: buffer space for A is filled with packets destined for B. The reverse is true at B.

Direct Store-and-Forward Deadlock

Deadlock in Message Communication
• Unavailability of Message Buffers
– For each node, the queue to the adjacent node in one direction is full with packets destined for the next node beyond

Structured Buffer Pool

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