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Welding is a process of joining two or more pieces of the same or dissimilar materials to achieve complete coalescence.
DEFINITION AS PER AWS / ASME A localised coalescence of metals or non-metals produced either by heating the materials to the welding temperature with or without the application of pressure alone, and with or without the application of filler material.
MIG . Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) 2. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW ) 1. . Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW / TIG) .WELDING PROCESSES 1. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) 3. MAG 4.
SELECTION OF WELDING PROCESS DEPENDS ON Thickness & Size of part to be welded Location and position of weld joints Joint design Welding equipment availability Process and operation requirement Production cost .
. Pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode. Shielding is obtained from decomposition of the electrode covering.SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING SMAW process defined as an arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a covered metal electrode and the work-piece.
SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING .
Butt welds in thick plate or large fillets are deposited in a number of passes. Operator adjusts electrode feed rate. Slag must be removed after depositing each bead.e. . The process can also be used to deposit metal to form a surface with alternative properties. hand movement to keep arc length constant. requiring plate edge preparation. I.MODE OF OPERATION Arc melts parent plate and electrode to form a weld pool which is protected by flux cover. Normally a small degree of penetration.
3. position of welding.. depth of penetration. 4 mm x 450 mm The characteristics of manual metal arc electrodes. arc stability.5x 250. rate of deposition. . i. Widely used: 2.8mm diameter with flux covering (1-5mm radial thickness).CONSUMABLES Metal rods 1.5 .e.15 x350/450. depends on the chemical composition of the electrode coating classified by AWS specifications.
OPERATING PARAMETERS Current range Open Circuit Voltage Deposition rate : 75-300 A : 65 .SMAW .80 V Range of Thickness: 2mm upwards : 2-11 lb/Hr Types of joint : All Welding position Access Portability : all (depending on flux coating) : Good : Good .
TYPICAL APPLICATIONS Structural steel work. Ship Building Repair and Hard facing of plant. construction .MATERIALS Mostly confined to ferrous alloys. but can be used for some others.
. OVERALL LIMITATIONS Skilled operator is required for good quality welds. Slow. High open circuit voltage present while electrode is fitted to holder.OVERALL ADVANTAGES Low Equipment Cost Usage possible with restricted access. mainly because flux must be chipped away. SAFETY Arc emits visible and ultraviolet radiation.
. Pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode. The arc is fully submerged in a layer of dry granular flux.SUBMERGED ARC WELDING SAW is defined as an arc welding process in which an arc is maintained between an end of a bare wire electrode and work piece.
SUBMERGED ARC WELDING .
Difficulty in welding low thickness metals. Extremely high deposition rate and welding speed.3000 A High Arc time can be achieved through automation.OVERALL ADVANTAGES High weld metal Quality Smooth and uniform weld bead with no spatters. Current Range: 450 . . Requirement of special jigs and fixtures. OVERALL LIMITATIONS High initial cost Limited welding positions. Minimum operator fatigue.
Shielding is obtained entirely from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture.GAS METAL ARC WELDING GMAW is defined as an arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a continuous filler metal (consumable) electrode and the work piece. .
GAS METAL ARC WELDING .
. if fully mechanised. EQUIPMENT : Power Source Wire feed Unit Welding gun or torch Gas supply system travelling unit.GAS METAL ARC WELDING TYPE OF OPERATION : Semi-automatic / Fully automatic.
Contd. and the arc length is controlled by the power source. selected to give the required current. . gas and power are fed to a hand held gun via a flexible conduit.GAS METAL ARC WELDING An arc is maintained between the end of the bare wire electrode and the work. The operator is not therefore concerned with controlling the arc length and can concentrate on depositing the weld metal in the correct manner. in which wire. The wire is fed at a constant speed. Hence the name ‘semi-automatic’ for manual operation.
. Special low-current techniques must be used. I. For welding in the vertical and overhead positions.GAS METAL ARC WELDING The process can be operated at high currents (250-500A) when metal transfer is in the form of ‘spray’ but except for aluminium. this technique is confined to welding in the flat and horizontal positions. ‘dip transfer’ or pulsed arc shielded by a stream of Gas.e.
Thk > =6mm.GMAW . in MIG ( Axial Transfer) for piping ( with Argo-CO2 shield) high thickness range.suitable for thin sheet metal works ( thk @ 3 mm or less) : Dip transfer. pulsed arc –Above 0.OPERATING PARAMETERS Current range : 65-500 A Metal Transfer modes: Globular .in CO2 welding ( Non-axial metal transfer) for Structures Spray Transfer . Dip Transfer ( Short Circuit ) .5mm Spray transfer 6mm upwards Deposition rate :12-10 Kg/Hr (2-20 Lb/Hr) Types of joint : All including spot welds .
flux cored are available for high deposition rate welding. argon for nonferrous materials and argon with 1.s.5-12 Kg (125lb) weight. Composition of wire selected to suit parent material. wire specifications covered by BS 2901. Shielding gas in cylinders containing compressed gas which will expand to 7Cu.Consumables Electrodes. Layer wound on spools 0.5% oxygen or 520% CO2 for high strength and corrosion resisting ferrous alloys. Composition to suit parent material – usually carbon dioxide (CO2) for mild steel.Ft) at atmospheric pressure. is normally copper coated) 0. .6-1.M (250 Cu.Other mixtures are used in special circumstances.6mm dia. Electrodes. bare wire (m.
Vehicle manufacturing. .for Thin sheet metal working.TYPICAL APPLICATIONS CO2 Welding ( MAG ).for Low Alloy. structures Dip Transfer ( Short Circuit) .For structures MIG Welding with Argon / Helium/ Mixed Gases . Copper and Copper allloys Spray Transfer method .for heavy wall thickness pipes. Mild Steel. Aluminium alloy.
OVERALL ADVANTAGES Continuous process Reduced finishing operations Thin sheets can be welded in all positions by dip transfer mode. OVERALL LIMITATIONS No independent control of filler addition. Range of action limited by wire feed. SAFETY Arc emits visible and ultraviolet radiation. .
as well as the filler metal. . A gas shield protects the electrode and molten weld pool. and provides the required arc characteristics. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) uses a non consumable tungsten electrode which must be shielded with an inert gas.consumable) electrode and the work piece.GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING GTAW is defined as an arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a tungsten (non. when used. The arc is initiated between the tip of the electrode and work to melt the metal being welded.
GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING .
STRAIGHT POLARITY REVERSE POLARITY .
OVERALL ADVANTAGES Superior quality welds Welds can be made with or without filler metal Precise control of welding variables (heat) Free of spatter Slag free Low distortion OVERALL LIMITATIONS Requires greater welder dexterity than MIG or stick welding Lower deposition rates More costly for welding thick sections .
4 SFA 5.28 SFA 5.9 SFA 5.9 SFA 5.1 E 7018 SFA 5.4 SFA 5.4 SFA 5.5 E 8018 B2 SFA 5.14 ER 90 SB3 ER 502 ER 505 ER 308 ER 316 ER 347 ER 347 ER 309 ER 310 ER Ni Cr3 .4 SFA 5.5 E 7018 A1 SFA 5.1 Mo 18 Cr 8 Ni 16 Cr 13 Ni Mo 18 C 10 Ni cb 18 Cr 10 Ni Tl 23 Cr 12 Ni 25 Cr 20 Ni Miscelleneous P22 P5 P9 COATED ELECTRODES ASME AWS SFA 5.4 SFA 5.9 SFA 5.RECOMMENDED ELECTRODES / FILLER WIRES BASE MATERIAL CARBON STEEL CARBON MOLY 11/4 Cr .4 SFA 5.1/2 Mo P11 21/4 Cr .1 Mo 5 Cr .9 SFA 5.9 SFA 5.1/2 Mo 9Cr .18 ER 70 S2 SFA 5.9 SFA 5.11 E 9018 B3 E 502 E 505 E 308 E 316 E 347 E 347 E 309 E 310 E Ni Cr Fe2 FILLER WIRES ASME AWS SFA 5.9 SFA 5.9 SFA 5.5 SFA 5.4 SFA 5.4 SFA 5.28 ER 80 SB2 SFA 5.28 ER 80 SB2 SFA 5.
Draw from this oven for use. 2.STANDARD REBAKING PROCEDURE FOR LOW HYDROGEN ELECTRODES 1. 5. Cool them in the same oven to 100 Deg. . C for one hour. C 4. Do not keep the rutile type electrodes in the same oven. Rebake the electrodes at 250-300 Deg. C 3. Transfer them to a holding oven maintained at 60-70 Deg.
WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION (WPS) • WPS shall be written as per ASME Section IX or IS 7307 • • ( For Cross Country Pipelines: API 1104) WPS is a written qualified welding procedure prepared to provide direction for making production welds to code requirements. non-essential and supplementary variables for each welding process. The WPS or other documents may be used to provide direction to the welder or welding operator to assure compliance with the code requirements. WPS shall describes all of essential. • • .
. It is a record of what happened during a particular welding test. • • The PQR is a record of variables recorded during the welding of the test coupons.PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION RECORD (PQR) • • PQR shall be written as per ASME Section IX or IS 7307. PQR is a record of the welding data used to weld a test coupon.
WELDERS PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION (WPQ) • • WPQ shall be written as per ASME Section IX or IS 7310. WPQ test shall be welded in accordance with qualified WPS. • Each manufacturer or contractor shall qualify each welder or welding operator for each welding process to be used in production welding. .
15 & 4.(s) W elding Process(es) JOINTS (QW -402) Joint Design Backing Backing Material (Type) (Refer to both packing and retainers) Metal Non mettalic Non Fusing Metal Other 2.2K Manual BASE METALS(QW -403) P.No.No. 0 - Date Date Type(s) 29.76 . 01 Group No. No (SFA) Aws.1 E7018 04 01 2.5 .ECC Construction Group L&T/CP CL/ Rev . A.Analysis and Mech. Prop.No.0mm NA NA NA Groov e 4.Analysis and Mech.Section IX ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) Company Name W elding Procedure Specification no Supporting PQR No.50 mm Groov e All - 02____ Fillet Fillet All All . 01 Group No 02 to P. 3.5+0. or Specification Type & Grade ASTM SA 516 GR 70 to Specification Type & Grade ASTM SA 516 GR 70 or Chem. Thickness Range Base Metal Pipe Dia Range Other FILLER METALS(QW -404) Process Spec. No(Class) F. Prop.5mm SMAW Larsen & Toubro Limited .1.No Size of Filler metals Electrode Flux(class) Flux Trade Name Consumable Insert Other SMAW 5.5mm mm Double 'V' Groove 60º Yes / No Nil t 1.5.12. to Chem. Rev .QW -482 W ELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS (W PS) (See QW -200.
NA Intial and Interpass Cleaning (Brushing.short circuiting etc.5 3.RP 18 .QW -482 (Ba ck) W PS No.2% Thoriated etc) NA Spray arc.) Method of Back Gouging Ocillation Contact tube to W ork distance Multiple or Single pass (per side) Multiple or Single Electrodes Trav el Speed ( Range) Peening Other ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Amp Ra nge Volt Ra nge Tra ve l spe e d Ra nge mm/min 60-120 60-120 60-120 60-120 W e ld La ye rs Proce ss Fille r Me ta ls Cla ss Dia 2. Tungsten electrode Size and Type Mode of metal Transfer for GMAW Eletrode W ire feed speed range TECHNIQUE (QW -410) String or W eav e Bead Orifice or Gas Cup Size Both NA W ire Brushing.5 2.Max Preheat Maintanence 150 Deg.24 V (Amps and v olts range should be recorded for each electrode size.position.15 4. Min Interpass temp. L&T/CPCL/ POSITIONS (QW -405) Position(s) of Groov e W elding Progression : Up Positions of Fillet PREHEAT(QW -406) Preheat Temp. and thick etc. C 160 Deg. 0 (Contininous or special heating w here applicable should be recorded) ELECTRICAL CHARECTRASTICS (QW -409) Current AC or DC Amps (Range) DC 60-180 Polority Volts Range SMAW .Grinding etc. C for T > 19mm Shielding Trailing Backing 250 Deg. C / Hr Re v. Grinding Grinding NA -Multipass Single See Table NA NA NA (Pure Tungsten.0 Curre nt Type DC DC DC DC Polority RP RP RP RP Othe rs 01 02 03 04 SMAW SMAW SMAW SMAW E 7018 E 7018 E 7018 E 7018 60-90 60-90 90-130 130-180 18-20 18-20 18-22 18-24 ----- Pre pa re d by for LTCG Re vie w e d a nd Approve d by for LTCG Re vie w e d a nd Acce pte d by for CLIENT / CONSULTANT .C Any Yes All Down X POST W ELD HEAT TREATMENT(QW -407) Temparature Range Heating & Cooling Rate GAS (QW -408) Percent Composition Gas(es) Mixture NA NA NA Flow Rate 595 to 650 Deg.
1. C NA NA .120 mm / Min String or W eav e Bead: Root .Fillup-W eav e Oscillation . Downhill) TECHNIQUE(QW -410) Trav el Speed : 60 . W elding Process(es) JOINTS (QW -402) 25mm Larsen & Toubro Limited . W eld metal Analysis A. Classification Filler Metal F. 70 01 25mm NA POSTW ELD HEAT TREATMENT(QW -407) Temperature : Time : 620 Deg.0mm NA ELECTRICAL CHARECTRASTICS (QW -409) Tungsten .15 & 4. : Type or Grade : ASTM SA 516 Gr.1 E7018 04 01 2. . . Rev .No.02.5 D Multipass or Single pass (per side) Multiple or Single Electrode Other NA Single Multipass . C One Hour P. C/ Hr Rate of Cooling: 130 Deg.5 . NA .No. Backing Current Polarity Amps Other FILLER METALS(QW -404) SFA Specification Aws. . 6G Uphill NA .QW -482 PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION RECORDS (PQR) (See QW -200.RP 130 Av e Volts NA 18-21 V .ECC Construction Div ision L&T/CP CL/ 01 L&T/CP CL/ 01 Rev .No.String. 01 to P. Electrode Size W eld Metal Thickness POSITION(QW -405) Position of Groov e : Other PREHEAT (QW -406 ) Preheat Temp : Inter pass temp : Other 150 Deg. _________2.2001 Manual SMAW 60º 1. 0 0 Date Date Type(s) 15.5. W eld Progression (Uphill. Thickness of Test Coupon : Diameter of Test Coupon : Other : NA Other : Rate of Heating : 160 Deg.5mm Groove mm design of Test Coupon BASE METALS(QW -403) Material Spec. W PS No.5+0.Section IX ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) Re cord of Actua l conditions use d to W e ld Te st Coupon Company Name Procedure Qualification Record No.No Size of Filler metals Other : 5.5mm 2. 3. C/ Hr GAS (QW 408) Percent Composition Gas(es) (Mixture) Flow Rate Shielding NA Trailing NA NA DC SMAW .
2001 Manufacturer : Larsen & Toubro Limited .570669702 1.16 from the welded area Guided .1 316 316 Ultimate Total Load KN 1.Bend Tests (QW -160) Type and Figure No 1.6 12. Face Bend FB2 3. Face Bend FB1 2. Date : 15. Chennai By : P Sampathkumar for L&T-ECCD for M/s SGS India Limited .02. T1 T2 Width 12.6 Thickness Area 25. 496.Satisfactory : yes Macro--Results Other Results Type of test Deposit analysis other NA NA NA No NA NA penetration into parent metal metal:yes : yes ______No _________ Welder's Name A. LBS % Shear Mils Drop Weight Break (Y / N) Result Significant Significant Significant Significant defect defect defect defect NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Fillet . L&T/CPCL/01 Tensile Test (QW -150) Specimen No.1 25. and tested in accordance with the requirements of section IX of the ASME Code. Impact Values Notch Specimen Test Location Siz e Temp Ft.568835768 Ultimate Type of unit Stress Mpa failure & Loc.2001 We certify that the statements in this record are correct and that the test welds were prepared.02.74 Fractured away 496.ARUL SELVAM Clock no _____________ Stamp no ______________ Tests conducted by : M/s __________________________Laboratory sargam metals Laboratory Test No test SM/MT/256A/2000-2001 No ______________________________ dated 14. Face Bend FB4 No No No No Toughness Tests (QW-170) Specimen No. welded.QW-483 (Back) PQR No. Face Bend FB3 4.Weld (QW-180) Result .ECC Division.
Insert Weld Symbol .
Thermal Cutting Methods .