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TOPICS:

Cell Out of Service Alarm Concept of VSWR and Reflection Coefficient VSWR Level 1 Alarm VSWR Level 2 Alarm Radio Link Prompt Alarm Clock Reference A normal Alarm !1 Local Alarm !1 Remote Alarm TR" #ard$are Alarm TR" Communication Alarm LAP% Alarm LAP% O&L 'ault (oard Communication Alarm

Cell Out of Service Alarm


%e)cription:
This alarm is reported when a cell is out of service because the TRX carrying the primary BCCH is faulty.

Attri ute):
Alarm !: "#$ Alarm %everity: Critical Alarm Type: &ault

Impact on S*)tem:
The services provided by the cell are disrupted.

W+at i) VSWR,
'hen a transmission line is terminated with an impedance( )*( that is not e+ual to the characteristic impedance of the transmission line( ),( not all of the incident power is absorbed by the termination. -art of the power is reflected bac. so that phase addition and subtraction of the incident and reflected waves creates a voltage standing wave pattern on the transmission line. The ratio of the ma/imum to minimum voltage is .nown as the 0oltage %tanding 'ave Ratio 10%'R2 and successive ma/ima and minima are spaced by 34#5 16782.

Reflection Coefficient
The mismatch in the impedance of load 9 source results in the reflection coefficient Reflection coefficient is given as:

The refection coefficient( :( is the absolute value of the magnitude of ;.

f the e+uation for 0%'R is solved for the reflection coefficient( it is found that:

%tanding 'ave diagram

VSWR Level 1 Alarm


%e)cription:
The alarm is triggered when the 0%'R of the <umper side at the antenna port e/ceeds the level 3 alarm threshold 13.8=0%'R=3."2

Attri ute):
Alarm !: 88>" Alarm %everity: 'arning Alarm Type: &ault

Impact on S*)tem:
This alarm shows that the <umper is not well connected to antenna port. ?uch power transmitted from the BT% is reflected by the <umper. Thus the power of the transmitted signals to the tower top amplifier decreases. %imilarly( many signals the antenna feeder receives from the antenna are also reflected antenna port. Thus the power of the received signals to the TRX decreases.

VSWR Level 2 Alarm


%e)cription:
The alarm is triggered when the 0%'R of the <umper side at the antenna port e/ceeds the level 8 alarm threshold. @enerated when 0%'RA3.$

Attri ute):
Alarm !: 88>8 Alarm %everity: ?inor Alarm Type: &ault

Impact on S*)tem:
This alarm shows that the antenna feeder system is not well compatible with the antenna port. ?uch power transmitted from the BT% is reflected by the <umper and feeder. Thus the power of the downlin. signals transmitted to the tower top decreases. %imilarly( the uplin. signals received by the corresponding antenna feeder branch are also reflected antenna port. Thus the power of the signals received by the TRX decreases.

Radio Link Prompt Alarm


%e)cription:
This alarm is reported when the BT% detects continuous R* abnormalities. R* abnormalities include the following situations: a- Warnin. for a normal c+annel activation t indicates that the channel types or channel states between BT% and B%C are not consistent. - Warnin. for a normal c+annel relea)e t indicates that the proportion of abnormal channel release e/ceeds the relevant alarm threshold. c- Warnin. for no traffic on primar* (CC# t indicates that there is no traffic detected on the primary BCCH within the specified time. d- Warnin. for po$er level im alance et$een uplink and do$nlink t indicates that the uplin. power level and the downlin. power level deviate from each other greatly.

ContdB
Attri ute):
Alarm !: "388 Alarm %everity: 'arning Alarm Type: &ault

Impact on S*)tem:
A normal c+annel activation alarm /10: f the channel types or states between the B%C and BT% are not consistent( the BT% might respond with a channel activation failure or not respond at all. This will bring about a call failure and directly affect the traffic statistic specifications. A normal c+annel relea)e alarm /20: 'hen the uplin. or downlin. is faulty( there is no correct interaction on the radio interfaces. 'hen a channel is activated( there will be no normal communication on the channel on the Cm interface. &inally the B%C will release the channel.

1o traffic on primar* (CC# alarm /20: 'hen the !TRC that carries the primary BCCH is faulty in the downlin.( the downlin. CCCH will become unavailable and there will be no access or handover to the relevant cell. Po$er level im alance et$een uplink and do$nlink alarm /30: A fault or defect in the uplin. receive channel or downlin. transmit channel on the BT% side will directly affect the traffic statistic specifications: DA fault or defect in the downlin. transmit channel of the !TRC that carries the primary BCCH will reduce the cell coverage area and lower the cell traffic load.

DA fault or defect in the downlin. transmit channel of the !TRC that carries a nonDprimary BCCH will reduce the coverage area( lower the handover success ratio and cause failure if the channel is assigned to the !TRC. DA fault or defect in the uplin. receive channel of the !TRC that carries the primary BCCH will reduce the traffic load within the cell coverage area and lower the handover success ratio. A fault or defect in the uplin. receive channel of the !TRC that carries a nonDprimary BCCH will lower the handover success ratio and cause failure if the channel is assigned to the !TRC.

Clock Reference A normal Alarm


%e)cription:
The BT% reports this alarm when its cloc. fails to synchroniEe to the B%C cloc. or the e/ternal cloc..

Attri ute):
Alarm !: 88#4 Alarm %everity: 'arning Alarm Type: &ault

Impact on S*)tem:
There might be an offset between the cloc. of BT% and that of other BT%s upon occurrence of this alarm. This might cause ?% handover failure.

!1 Local Alarm
%e)cription:
The alarm is triggered when the F3 chip of BT% main control module does not receive correct F3 signals 9 causes interruption of BT% transmission

Attri ute):
Alarm !: 883" Alarm %everity: ?a<or Alarm Type: &ault

Impact on S*)tem:
The services of the BT% are interrupted because it cannot communicate with the upper level B%C or BT%. Call drops 9 handover failures also occur.

!1 Remote Alarm
%e)cription:
The alarm is triggered when the BT% transmission is interrupted because the upper level BT% has not received correct F3 signals.

Attri ute):
Alarm !: 883G Alarm %everity: ?inor Alarm Type: &ault

Impact on S*)tem:
The services of the nearDend BT% are interrupted because it cannot communicate with the upper level B%C or BT%. Call drops 9 handover failures occur.

TR" #ard$are Alarm


%e)cription:
A TRX reports this alarm when detecting that the power supply allocated to the power amplifier is not available.

Attri ute):
Alarm !: 83"4 Alarm %everity: ?a<or Alarm Type: &ault

Impact on S*)tem:
All the services on the TRX will be interrupted upon occurrence of this alarm.

TR" Communication Alarm


%e)cription:
The alarm is triggered when the handsha.e between TRX and T?C 1Transmission ?essage Cnit2 at the Control BC%8 lin. layer fails.

Attri ute):
Alarm !: 88#" Alarm %everity: ?a<or Alarm Type: &ault

Impact on S*)tem:
The TRX cannot wor. normally upon occurrence of this alarm.

LAP% Alarm
%e)cription:
A TRX reports this alarm upon detecting that an *A-! lin. is not available.

Attri ute):
Alarm !: 833" Alarm %everity: ?a<or Alarm Type: &ault

Impact on S*)tem:
All the services of the TRX will be interrupted upon occurrence of this alarm.

LAP% O&L 'ault


%e)cription:
The alarm is reported when the *A-! ,?* between the B%C and BT% is disconnected.

Attri ute):
Alarm !: 3### Alarm %everity: Critical Alarm Type: &ault

Impact on S*)tem:
The call services are affected. The BT% is reset automatically if the OML is disconnected for more than 3$ minutes.

Board Communication Alarm


%e)cription: The alarm is reported when the main module detects abnormal communication between itself 9 the R& front module Attri ute): Alarm !: $8H8 Alarm %everity: ?a<or Alarm Type: &ault Impact on S*)tem: The communication between the main controlling module 9 the R& module is disrupted. All the alarms of R& module are reported through the main controlling module so the B%C will not be able to monitor the alarms of R& module