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Regenerative Capacity

Labile Stable


Epithelial, Lymphoid, Haemopoietic Liver, Pancreas, Salivary gland, Endocrine organs Neurons, Skeletal muscle, Cardiac muscle




Cell Proliferation and Cancer

It was originally assumed that cancer arose from a population of cells that proliferated more rapidly than normal cells It is now known that many malignant cells have longer cell cycle times than their normal counterparts

What Happens in Malignancy?

Malignancies probably arise when there is an imbalance between cell production and cell loss Cell loss occurred through necrosis, apoptosis and surface shedding Abnormalities of the cell cycle do not explain all of the growth of malignant tumors and they are clearly not important in invasion and metastasis

For every cell, there is time to live and a time to die There are two ways in which cells die:
They are killed by injuries agents They are induced to commit suicide (apoptosis or Programmed cell death;PCD)

Two forms of cell death

Necrosis Apoptosis

Death by Injury
Cells that are damaged by injury, such as by:
Mechanical damage Exposure to toxic chemicals

Undergo a characteristic series of changes:

They are swell The cell contents leak out, leading to; Inflammation of surrounding tissues

Death by Suicide (Apoptosis)

Cells that are induced to commit suicide: Shrink Have their mitochondrial break down Develop bubble-like blebs on their surface Have the chromatin in their nucleus degraded and show chromatin condensation Break into small, membrane-wrapped, fragment

Apoptosis Versus Necrosis

Apoptosis Central part of normal development Genetically mediated Involve in organogenesis, tissue homeostasis Necrosis Results from cell metabolic collapse Response to injury or toxic damage

Apoptosis Versus Necrosis

Apoptosis Shrinkage of cell Little or no swelling of mitochondria Intact membrane Degradation of DNA into multiple of 180 bp Little or no inflammatory response Necrosis Swelling of cell Swelling of mitochondria Loss of membrane integrity Random degradation of DNA Intense inflammatory response

Why Should a Cell Commit Suicide?

There are two different reasons Apoptosis is needed for proper development
The formation of the fingers and the toes of the fetus requires the removal, by apoptosis of the tissue between them

Apoptosis is needed to destroy cells that represent a thread to integrity of the organism
Cells infected with viruses Cells of the immune system Cells with DNA damage

What Makes Cell Decide to Commit Suicide?

The balance between: The withdrawal of positive signals; that is, signal needed for continued survival (GF, cytokines, oncogenes) The receipt of negative signals (increased levels of oxidant damage of DNA, tumor suppressor)