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Acquired Immune Deficiency

Syndrome (AIDS)
 Means Acquired Immune Deficiency
 It is acquired, which means it is
neither hereditary nor inborn.
 It involves immune deficiency
 It is a syndrome, a combination of
signs and symptoms that form a
district clinical picture of disorder
 Refers to the Human
Immunodeficiency Virus which causes
 It is retrovirus
 It belongs to lentivirus,which is
sometimes called “slow virus”
 The period between infection and the
appearance of AIDS can take from 7
to 12 years.
 Human beings produce antibodies
against specific infections. When HIV
infection takes place,anti-HIV
antibodies are produced but they do
not appear immediately. This is called
the “window effect”
 In some cases, antibodies to HIV
become detectable 4 to 6 weeks after
 When HIV is in circulation, it invades
several types of cells – the lymphocytes,
macrophages, the Langerhans cells and
neurons within the CNS.
 HIV attacks the body’s immune system.
The organism attaches to a protein
molecule called CD4 which is found in the
surface of T4 cells.
 Once the virus enters the T4,it inserts its
genetic materials into the T4 cell’s nucleus
taking over the cell to replicate itself.
 Eventually the T4 cell dies after having
been used to replicate HIV.
 The virus mutates rapidly making it more
difficult for the body’s immune system to
recognize the invaders.
 HIV infection progresses through several
The Clinical course of HIV infection
begins when a person becomes infected
with HIV through:
 Sexual contact with infected person
 Injection of infected blood or blood
 Perinatal or vertical transmission
Minor Signs
 Persistent cough for one month
 Generalized pruritic dermamatitis
 Recurrent herpes zoster
 Oropharyngeal candidiasis
 Chronic disseminated herpes simplex
 Generalized lymphadenopathy
Major Signs
 Loss of weight – 10 % of body weight
 Chronic diarrhea for more than one
 Prolonged fever for one month
Common Opportunistic Infections
 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
 Oral candidiasis
 Toxoplasmosis of the CNS
 Chronic diarrhea/wasting syndrome
 Cancers
f. Kaposi's sarcoma
g. Cervical dysplasia and Cancer
h. Non-Hodgkin’s lyphoma
Mode of Transmission
 Sexual intercourse
 Blood transfusion and sharing of
infected syringes and needles among
intravenous drug users
 Vertical or perinatal transmission
Several Ways of Receiving Infect
 Blood transfusion
 Sharing of unsterilized syringes and
needles used for intravenous
 Transmission during pregnancy
 Organ donation
 Accidental exposure in hospitals or
Diagnostic Examination
 EIA or ELISA-enzyme link
immunosorbent assay
 Particle agglutination (PA) test
 Western blot analysis-confirmatory
diagnostic test
 Immunoflourescent test
 Radio immuno-precipitation assay
Treatment Modalities
 AIDS drugs are medicines usec to
treat but not to cure HIV infection.
 These drugs are sometimes reffered
to as “anteroviral drugs”
Two groups of Anteroviral Drugs
1.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors-they inhibit
the enzyme called reverses transcriptase
which is needed to “copy” information for
the virus to replicate.
 These drugs are:

c. Zedovudine (ZDV) - Retirvir

d. Zalcitabline - Havid
e. Stavudine - Zeprit
f. Lamivudine - Epivir
g. Nevirapine - Viramune
h. Didanosine - Videx
2. Protease Inhibitors-they work by
inhibiting the enzyme protease which
are needed for the assembly of viral
These Drugs are:
c. Saquinavir - Invarase
d. Ritonavir - Norvir
e. Indinavir - Crixivan
Nursing Management

 Health Education
 Practice Universal/standard
 prevention
Four C’s in the Management of
 Compliance
 Counseling/education
 Contact tracing
 Condoms
The End