we can take control of all aspects of our life. This idea is wonderfully framed by the timeless wisdom of the ancient Serenity Prayer : God. senator) Accepting responsibility for choices starts with understanding where our choices lie. grants me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change. We can find the freedom that comes from being in charge of our self. both consciously and unconsciously. If we can control the process of choosing. The courage to change the things I can." (Robert Bennett. U. And the wisdom to know the difference.Our life is the sum result of all the choices we make. .S.

.TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT Training is application of knowledge :  Enhances the ability of employees Development is a related process :    Emphasizes upon the growth and personality of the individual. Helps convert them into better men and women. Intended to equip person to earn promotions and hold greater responsibility.

the importance of employee Development also increases. employee Training and Development are not only an activity that is desirable but also an activity that an organization must commit resources to if it is to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force. .WHAT SEPERATES TRAINING FROM DEVELOPMENT ATTITUDE BUILDING As the jobs become more complex. In a rapidly changing society.

Roundtable on the Science and Technology Workforce.TARINING AS A FUNCTION OF HR America’s Human resources are the basis of our innovation capabilities and these underpin Our economic strength and national security. (Bart Gordon. June23.2005) .

THE NEED FOR TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT T & D Need = Standard performance – Actual Performance .

Develop themselves so they can increase their responsibilities and contribute to the organization in new ways   . Accept the challenges of their evolving jobs.WHAT TRAINING CAN DO Training can help employees  Attain new skills that are required to meet new expectations both formal and informal.

Employee Behavior and Interpersonal relationships etc. .THE PROBLEMS WITH TRAINING     The selling of Training Training as a secondary Profession Lack of Training in Psychology. Lack of Formal Training in the content they will be teaching.

CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN T & D TRAINING ISSUES RESULTING FROM THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT :  CROSS-CULTURAL PREPARATION : Types of Employees in Global organizations Parent-country National Host-country National Third-country National • • •  CROSS-CULTURAL TRAINING : Rigor of Cross-cultural Training Virtual Expatriates • • .

HOFSTEDE’s Five Dimensions of National Culture      Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Individualism/Collectivism Masculinity/Femininity Long-Term/Short-Term Orientation .

Uncertainty Avoidance Long-Term Orientation . Culture with a long-term orientation will have trainees who are likely to accept developmental plans and assignments. Culture high in Individualism expects participation in exercises questioning to be determined by status in the organization/culture. Culture low in masculinity values relationships with fellow trainees : Female trainers are less likely to be resisted in low-masculinity countries.IMPLICATIONS OF CULTURAL DIMENSIONS FOR TRAINING DESIGN CULTURAL DIMENSIONS Power Distance Individualism Masculinity IMPLICATIONS Culture High in power distance expects the trainer to be an expert : Trainers are expected to be Authoritarian and controlling of session. Culture high in uncertainty avoidance expects formal instructional environments.

gender. family status. religious orientation or cultural background.MANAGING WORKFORCE DIVERSITY Diversity is Strength The objectives of Diversity Training Programs are :   To remove values. physical condition. stereotypes and managerial practices that obstruct employees’ personal development and Permit employees to contribute to organizational goals without considering race. age. .

. Close the gap between the current skill level and desired one for each employee. Melting the Glass ceiling The Glass ceiling is an invisible barrier to advancement to the upper echelons of the organization caused by stereotype perceptions or organizational practices that affect the development of women or handicapped individuals.ISSUES RELATED TO THE INTERNAL NEEDS OF ORGANIZATION Basic skills Such programs involve the following steps :    Establish the necessary skills employees must have to do their jobs effectively. Employees current skills must be measured.

coaching and support services with the involvement of organizational psychologists in all spheres of the program.DEVELOPING MANAGERS WITH DYSFUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOURS  Toxic managers require an amalgamation of assessment. ICE programs ought to be designed for diagnosis. training and counseling.  .

ENDING NOTE   Training as a Management tool like a carpenter’s tool. Presence of supporting structure .

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