You are on page 1of 52

Power Electronics and Drives

Introduction

Power Electronics involves the study of Power semiconductor devices - their physics, characteristics, drive requirements and their protection for optimum utilization of their capacities, Power converter topologies involving them, Control strategies of the converters, Digital, analogue and microelectronics involved,

Capacitive and magnetic energy storage elements,

Rotating and static electrical devices, Quality of waveforms generated, Electro Magnetic and Radio Frequency Interference, Thermal Management

How is Power electronics distinct from linear electronics?


It is not primarily in their power handling capacities. While power management IC's in mobile sets working on Power Electronic principles are meant to handle only a few milliwatts, large linear audio amplifiers are rated at a few thousand watts.

Power electronics and its applications covers:


the characteristics of modern power semiconductor devices, which are used as switches to perform the power conversions from ac-dc, dc-dc, dc-ac, and ac-ac;
both the fundamental principles and in-depth study of the operation, analysis, and design of various power converters; And examples of recent applications of power electronics.

DEFINITION:

Power electronics involves the study of electronic circuits intended to control the flow of electrical energy.
These circuits handle power flow at levels much higher than the individual device ratings.

The history

Applicat ion of fast- switching Invention of fully- controlled Thyristor semiconductor GTO devices Mercury arc rectifier GTR Vacuum- tube rectifier Power diode Power MOSFET Thyratron Thyristor Thyristor (microprocessor)
1900 1957 mid 1970s

IGBT Power MOSFET Thyristor (DSP)

late 1980s

Pre-history

1st phase

2nd phase

3rd phase

Applications
Industrial applications Motor drives Electrolysis Electroplating Induction heating Welding Arc furnaces and ovens Lighting

Transportation applications Trains & locomotives Subways Trolley buses Magnetic levitation Electric vehicles Automotive electronics Ship power systems Aircraft power systems

Utility stems applications High- voltage dc transmission(HVDC) Flexible ac transmission(FACTS) Static var compensation & harmonics suppression: TCR, TSC, SVG, APF Custom power & power quality control Supplemental energy sources : wind, photovoltaic, fuel cells Energy storage systems

Power supplies for electronic equipment Telecommunications Computers Office equipment Electronic instruments Portable or mobile electronics

Residential and home appliances Lighting Heating Air conditioning Refrigeration & freezers Cooking Cleaning Entertaining

Applications in space technology Spaceship power systems Satellite power systems Space vehicle power systems

Other applications Nuclear reactor control Power systems for particle accelerators Environmental engineering

Trends It is estimated that in developed countries now 60% of the electric energy goes through some kind of power electronics converters before it is finally used. Power electronics has been making major contributions to: --better performance of power supplies and better control of electric equipment --energy saving --environment protection reduction of energy consumption leads to less pollution reduction of pollution produced by power converters direct applications to environment protection technology

Major issues in power electronics


How to meet the requirement of the load or gain better control of the load How to improve the efficiency -- for reliable operation of power semiconductor devices -- for energy saving How to realize power conversion with less volume, less weight, and less cost. How to reduce negative influence to other equipment in the electric power system and to the electromagnetic environment.

INTRODUCTION
Introduction to power electronics Power electronics versus linear electronics - review of thyristors power FETS turn on and off circuits Microprocessor based firing circuits series and parallel operation protection circuits design of snubber circuits ratings and protection

CONVERTERS AND INVERTERS


Analysis of half controlled and fully controlled converters dual converters Analysis of voltage source and current source Current source and series converters

INDUSTRIAL MOTOR CONTROL


Methods of controlling speed Induction and DC Motor controls -use of Microcontroller for speed control - Feedback and Feed forward control - Step-up and step-down choppers - use of choppers - Frequency converters and cyclo converters

RELAYS, HEAT AND WELDING Electronic relays operating principles torque production types induction and dielectric heating effect of frequency power requirement Resistance welding, principle and control timing sequence Analysis and design of switched mode power supplies UPS

PROCESS CONTROLLERS
Elements of process control process characteristics ON-OFF control Proportional and derivative control electronic controllers pneumatic controllers temperature, flow and pressure control -voltage regulators - principle of digital control

References:
R. Ralph Benediet and Nathan Weiner Industrial electronics circuits and applications Prentice hall of India New Delhi P.C Sen., Principles of Electric Machines and power electronics John Wiley & Sons Inc 2nd edition, 1997 Harrott , p Process control Tata McGraw Hill 1991 Joseph Vithayathil , Power electronics : Principle and Applications McGraw Hill 1st edition 1995

COURSE OBJECTIVE

The course aims to provide adequate knowledge of power electronics devices and their application for utilising and control, and considering of electrical power along with methods of designing the power electronics circuit.

COURSE OBJECTIVE
On completion of the course the student will be able to obtain the synergetic integration of mechanical engineering with electronics circuit design to:
model and design of different switching characteristics of power electronics devices. determine the operation characteristics and performance of the controller to achieve the required control for the drives

design the high power control circuits for welding, heating and other applications

COURSE OBJECTIVE
Able to utilise the sensors, actuators and relays in controlling protection of the different device in the circuit

THEORY COURSES

1 2 3 4

Advanced Semiconductor Devices Analysis of converters Analysis of Inverters Generalized Machine Theory

5
6 7 8 9

Solid State DC Drives


Solid State AC Drives Digital Control Microcontroller Applications in Power Electronics DSP Based Electromechanical Motion Control

LAB courses & OTHERS

1 2 3 4

Power Electronics Hardware lab Power Electronics Simulation lab Microcontroller Applications in Power Electronics lab DSP based Motion control lab

Electives Projects Seminar Advanced Mathematics Professional and communication skills/ Other Language

Simulation
What is simulation Mathematical methods Programs

What is Simulation
Simulation is a prediction of what might happen

What can we simulate


Large simulations take a lot of time Large simulations increase complexity and clarity

Methods and Programs


Mathematical methods
State Space DAE MNA

Various programs
Spice Matlab/Simulink Saber Caspoc

Mathematical Methods
ODE (State Space)
Causal time varying systems

MNA
Circuit models

DAE
Equations

Mathematics

Various programs
Spice
Electronics (General)

Matlab/Simulink
Systems described by a Block Diagram (General)

Saber
Systems described by equations (General)

Caspoc
Systems and Circuits (PE & ED)

Special models
Power Electronics
Semiconductor models Heat sink Parasistics Analog / digital control Embedded control

Electrical Machines
Machine models Mechanical load

Simulation steps
Identify the components Models Parameters

Identify the components


Different components require different models First identify these components

Parameters
What is a model
Reflection of the users imagination, how a design should work

Components
Power Electronics Electrical machine Mechanical load Power Main Electronics Main Control

Electrical Machine

Mechanical Load

Control

Models
Multilevel Modeling
Circuit model Block Diagram Modeling language