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Regeneration

Instructor: Dr. Shahzad A. Mufti Advisor Department of Biosciences

Regeneration
Reactivation of development in postembryonic life to restore missing tissues/organs. 3 principal types: Morphallaxis, epimorphosis & copmensatory. Morphallaxis in Hydra. Cut pieces rearrange..complete but smaller individuals.

Regeneration
Epimorphosis, as in slamander limb regeneration: through stages of dedifferention, proliferation and then redifferntiation or respecification. Histologoical events in Slamander limb regeneration: amputationplasma clot wound epidermis.apical ectodermal cap

Regeneration
Dedifferentiation of stump tissues. Proliferation of mesenchymal cells.blastema formation Myotube cells re-enter cell cycle through a factor formed as a result of interaction between thrombin & serum.

Regeneration
Nerves also essential for blastema cell proliferation. Neurons release factors, such as glial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor(FGF2), which also acts as angiogenesis factor. FGF10 also mitogenic for blastema mesenchymal cells also induces FGF8 production in overlying ectoderm.

Regeneration
Patten formation in regeneration blastema: Very similar to the ones in embryonically developing limb. Proximo-distal and dorsoventral axes identical. Bryants experiments interchange of blastema & limb bud.

Regeneration
Controlled by retinoic acid (Vit. A). Madens (1982) experiments, duplication of proximo-distal axis, Crawford(1998) experiments, transposition of blastema with or without retinoic acid treatment.

Regeneration
Retinoic acid synthesized in wound epidermis in a gradient---- this retinoic acid activates HoxA genes differentially in wound epidermis determination of proximo-distal patterning. Mechanism not clear----may be by cell surface properties.

Regeneration of a salamander forelimb. The amputation shown on the left

Regeneration in the larval forelimb of the spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum. (A) Longitudinal section of the upper arm, 2 days after amputation. The skin and muscle have retracted from the tip of the humerus. (B) At 5 days after amputation, a thin accumulation of blastema cells is seen beneath a thickened epidermis. (C) At 7 days, a large population of mitotically active blastema cells lies distal to the humerus. (D) At 8 days, the blastema elongates by mitotic activity; much dedifferetiation has occured. (E) At 9 days, early redifferentiation can be seen. Chondrogenesis has begun in the proximal part of the regenerating humerus, H. The letter A marks the apical mesenchyme of the blastema, and U and R are the precartilaginous condensations that will form the ulna and radius, respectively. P represents the stump where the amputation was made. (F) At 10 days after amputation, the precartilaginous condensations for the carpal bones (ankle, C), and the first two digits (D1, D2) can also be seen. (From Stocum 1979; photographs courtesy of D. L. Stocum.)

Effects of vitamin A (a retinoid) on regenerating salamander limbs. (A) Normal regenerated axolotl limb (9) with humerus, paired radius and ulna, carpals, and digits. Dotted line shows plane of amputation through the carpal area. (B) Regeneration after amputation through the carpal area, but after the regenerating animal had been placed in retinol palmitate (vitamin A) for 15 days. A new humerus, ulna, radius, carpal set, and digit set have emerged (5). (From Maden et al. 1982; photographs courtesy of M.

Proximalization of blastema respecification by retinoic acid. (A) When a wrist blastema from a recently cut axolotl forelimb is placed onto a host hindlimb cut at the mid-thigh level, it will generate