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Presentation of Politics &Foreign Policy Of India

Presented To: Respected Sir Ishfaq Ahmad

Presented By: Syeda Maha Tariq, Ro SuRyong

Sumaira Nazir, Sidra Ali, Sayyam Manzoor

Indo pak war 1971


Partition of sub continent in 1947 East west Pakistan 1948 war 1965 war

Tashkant agreement

The root of discord

Operation searchlight Liberation war Elections of 1970

Origin of crisis

Role of personalities: Sheikh mujeeb ur rehman Zulfiqar ali bhutto General yahya khan

General tikka khan

Mrs. Indira gandhi

Sheikh mujeeb ur rehman

Charismatic personality. Formation of Awami league. Won election in east Pakistan. 6 point formula. Mujeeb was arrested.

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto

Got majority seats in west Pakistan He says: whosoever goes to east pakistan I will break his legs

General Yahya Khan

Become president of Pakistan in 1969 General Tikka khan Order to pacifying east Pakistan Crackdown of 25 march 1971

Several crackdown by Pak army Massive loss of civilian life 8 million refugees to neighbouring India West Bengal worestly effected by refugees problems

Mrs Indra Gandhi

Indian prime minister Support bengali freedom fighters specially mukti bahini She says: We take revenge of 65 Today we throw two nation theory in Bay of Bengal

Today we ended the mughlia sultanat forever PAF attack on suspected mukti bahini camps 3 dec 1971 Mrs Indra Gandhi broadcast to the nation

War is declared..

War is declared

Strikes 5:40 pm on 3 dec 1971 PAF aircrafts struck 9 Indain airfields along the western border 2 front war

Entering of Indian troops Into East Pakistan

Modest aims, Ambitious Action

Key men in Lightening operations in 1971 Indian Army Chief General Sam Maneckshaw Lt . General K . P . Candeth Lt . General J . S. Aurora Major General J.F.R. Jacob

Objective of India: occupy territories of Bangladesh in limited time Objective of Pakistan: Delay the Indian army advance

Limited aim of General Maneckshaw : occupy only two areas of East Pakistan, Chittagong and Khulna Capturing the whole of East Pakistan seemed impossible due to geography and terrain of Pakistan

Three major rivers - the Brahmaputra, the Ganga and the Meghna - divided East Pakistan into four natural regions

Lt. General Aurora's Chief of Staff, Major General Jacob I think the aim of the government was to take as much territory as possible in East Pakistan as to establish an Bangladeshi government in their own territory. . Dhaka was the geopolitical centre of East Pakistan and seizing it was most crucial.

East Command went ahead with their own plans although Army Headquarters felt it was impossible to achieve.
Jacob`s commander, Lt. General Aurora provided full support for his Army`s own plans and allowed Jacob to pull down troops kept in reserve.

"We realised that any campaign to be successful had to be swift. The United Nations was putting great pressure on us and also the Russians had indicated that they did not want to exercise their veto any more, therefore any campaign had to be quick. We realised that Niazi was going to fortify the towns and defend them in strength. We therefore decided not attack any towns but bypass them using subsidiary tracks to get to our objective: Dhaka." Jacob

Thousands of troops and tones of equipments successfully crossed the rivers. Due to efforts and help from - Army Corps of engineers - Mukti Bahini - IAF - Local Help

Within 6 days of the war, Indian troops penetrated deep into Pakistan.

Using Blockade From Seas

1971 war was the first and only occasion when the Indian political leadership properly used military power for achieving a clear national aim.

East and West Pakistan were two separate geographical entities more than 1,600 miles apart, the only way Pakistani forces in East Pakistan could be sustained was through the sea.
Navy was given the strategic task of denying both East and West Pakistan access to war supplies.

Aims of Indian Navy

in short : complete naval blockade of both parts of Pakistan. The bigger aim : ensuring that conflict will not be perpetuated beyond the time required to capture a chunk of East Pakistani territory.

INS Vikrant

India`s sole aircraft carrier at the time. a carefully preserved World War II vintage carrier built in Britain. Vikrant would be used to blockade the ports in East Pakistan, and destroy the riverine crafts used by the Pakistanis there.

Vikrant in Action

The day war was declared, the Vikrant, which had been anchored off the northern-most tip of the Andaman & Nicobar chain of islands, moved towards the principal East Pakistani port, Chittagong. Pakistani submarine PNS Ghazi was dispatched to the east. It failed to cause any damage to Vikrant and was detected and sunk.

The attack on Karachi

The most dramatic naval plan was drawn up by the Western Naval Command. the main attack on Karachi harbor would be launched by tiny PT-15 missile boats instead of regular warships. three missile boats were chosen for the mission and dispatched in the dead of night from Bombay harbor. Leading the missile boat squadron was Commodore Babru Bahan Yadav

Our ships were little more than boats and did not have the range to go all the way to Karachi on their own steam. So an oiler was placed about half-way to the target and we were able to refuel and carry on. Only Nipat, the boat I was on, could proceed towards Karachi harbour. We pressed on and fired missiles on Karachi which hit the oil installations there. The attack took place just 1 minute before midnight and we could see the flames from the oil installations lighting up the sea. It looked like Diwali (Indian festival of lights and firecrackers)."

The Indian Navy accomplished the task assigned to it within the first few days of the war.

No enemy shipping could move in or out of its harbors. Merchant ships did not dare approach Karachi. Control of the seas around both wings of Pakistan was with the Indian Navy.

Defending the west

Limited plans

Aim was not the destruction of Pakistan Took as much as territory from the Pakistan Pakistani commanders, aware of this basic dynamic Concentrated all forces in the West (starfighters, Chinese F-6, T-59 tanks, US built Patton tanks)

The first blow

Attacking nine Indian air bases on 3 December 1971 Major General Z.C.Bakshi commanding the 26 Indian infantry division



Two Indians army commands: western command & southern command;

Engaged in offensive action Defense rather than offense.


Three offensive missions: To move toward Sialkot To capture shakargarh To move across the deserts

Attacks by 1 corps:

Lt.General K.K.Singh (HQs pathankot) Attack the bulge from three sides attack from samba Western tip of the bulge

Southern part of the bulge


Not secure there objectives 54 division Pakistanis had got the wind of the plan 17 HORSE

Battle of the Longewal

Fought in the deserts of Rajistan India lost a vast expanse of desert On Pakistan side principal town is Rahimiyar khan ON Indian side principal town are Jaislmir, Barmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur


Dec 3..

5:30 pm..PAF attack on Amritsar, pathankot, Sirinagar, Ambala & Agra. National emergency declared. Indira Gandhi Aggression must be met and people of India will met with fortitude, determination and almost unity

Dec 4

Indian retaliates by bombing Pak Air Bases(Massroor, Dacca, Jessore) Indian attacks on Chitagong. Pakistan attacks on Lonngawala.

Dec 5

Indian navy target the port of Karachi. Pak-Champ & J&K. US resolution for ceasefire.

Dec 6..

Indian troops advance in Sailkot. Indian recognizing Bangladesh. IAF hits Attock Oil Refinery.

Dec 7..

Indian liberate Jessore and Jhenida in East Pakistan from Pakistan control.

Dec 8..

INS vinash fires for missiles into Karachi Port city burn for several days

Dec 9

Major setback to India. INS khukri is sunk by a submarine killing more then 190 crew

Dec 10..

Fighting again intensifies in Chhamb Pakistan try to push through Indian defences

Dec 11..
Indian airforce drop 100 of paratroops at Tangail Fierce battle in Shakargarh

Dec 12
Lt.Genral AAk Niaza. 12 dec first press confrence in Dacca Dacca will fall only over my dead body

Dec 13

Indian troops of 11infantary division occupy the major town of Parbat Ali Pakistan stems indian attack to occupy Shakargarh

Dec 14

IAF targets on sui base plant in sind IAF attack with MiG-21s Gorvernor of East pakitan A H Malik resign

Dec 15

Siege of Dacca continue Heavy fighting in J&K. Mukti bahni force accompany advancing Indian paratroops Ceasefire/surrender.

Dec 16

Lt.Genral Naizi Lt.Genral Jagit Singh Aurora Sign instruments of surrender 5:00 pm


Decisive Indian and Bangladeshi victory Eastern front: Pakistani forces surrender. Western front: Ceasefire after Pakistani surrender in the east


Indian Armed Forces:500,000 Mukti Bahini: 175,000

Pakistan Armed Forces: 365,000

Territorial changes

Separation and liberation of East Pakistan as the independent state of Bangladesh

Casualties and losses

India 3,843 killed 9,851 wounded Indian Okha harbour damaged/fueling facilities destroyed

Pakistan 9,000 killed 4,350 wounded 97,368 captured Pakistani main port Karachi facilities damaged/fuel tanks destroyed

Damage to western Indian airfields Pakistani Claims 130 IAF Aircraft Indian Claims 45 IAF Aircraft

Pakistani airfields damaged and cratered Pakistani Claims 42 PAF Aircraft Indian Claims 94 PAF Aircraft

International Community

Role of US and China

Indira Gandhi wrote to Nixon about the carnage in East Bengal And the flood of refugees, burdening India. After LK jha (then the Indian ambassador to US ) had warned Kissinger that India might have to send back some of the refugees as guerrillas Nicson commented, By God we will cut off economical aid (India)


introduce a resolution in the security council. US sympathise with Pakistan. US needed help from china Kissinger arrived in Beijing. China support Pakistan. China feared any action on India might attract Soviet aggression.


US assured china that any action taken by USSR will be counter by US to protect China.

Role of USSR

Gave full support to Indian Army and Mukti Bahni Indira Gandhi has failed to gain American support any sympathy. She singed a treaty with USSR. Indo-Soviet Friendship Treaty of August 1971. It was a shock to US. Vetoed resolution.

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