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Piping materials are of many types. The specific material to suit a design requirement is chosen on the basis of certain key factors.
FACTORS AFFECTING SELECTION OF PIPING MATERIALS
• Mechanical properties – tensile, yield, creep, rupture, fatigue and impact • Performance requirements and material reliability • Safety • Environmental conditions • Availability • Resistance to erosion and corrosion • Economic factors
VITAL CHARACTERISTICS REQUIRED
Toughness Creep Strength Ductility Good surface finish Hardness
CLASSIFICATION OF PIPING MATERIALS PIPING MATERIALS METALLIC NON-METALLIC LINED FERROUS NON-FERROUS PVC MS RUBBER LINED CAST IRON COPPER & ITS ALLOYS HDPE MS PTFE. MS PVDF CARBON STEEL ALUMINIUM & ITS ALLOYS PTFE MS LEAD LINED ALLOY STEEL NICKEL AND ITS ALLOYS LDPE MS CERAMIC LINED STAINLESS STEEL LEAD AND ITS ALLOYS GLASS MS GLASS LINED OTHER SPECIAL ALLOYS CERAMIC FRP PP LINED CEMENT .
DUCTILE IRON. ALUMINIUM AND ITS ALLOYS AND NICKEL STEEL OTHER PLASTICS MATERIALS (PVC. BRASS. asbestos cement. rubber and some newer plastics) .COMMONLY USED PIPING MATERIALS LOW CARBON STEEL. LOW ALLOY STEEL AND STAINLESS STEELS (used for high temperature services) WROUGHT IRON. CAST IRON. COPPER. polythene. polypropylene. glass. concrete. GR pipes.
TEMPERATURE LIMITATION OF PIPING MATERIALS SI NO 1 MATERIAL Carbon Steel A106 GrB API 5L GrB MAX WORKING TEMP OC 427 230 REMARKS Yield stress decreases beyond this temp 2 Alloy Steel A335 GrP11 A335 GrP22 A335 GrP91 570 600 650 -do- 3 Stainless Steel A312 GrTP304 A312 GrTP316 -200 to 500 -200 to 538 175 400 260 260 290 Room Temp From –220 OC to 538 OC 4 5 6 7 8 9 Aluminium Titanium Thermoplastics Thermosetting plastics Concrete Rubber Loses strength beyond this temp -doMelts beyond this temp Some epoxies can be used upto 290 OC Cannot be used for temp intensive services -do- .
ferritic Nickel and its alloys Titanium and its alloys Copper Cooper Alloys Brasses and Bronzes Aluminium Aluminium Alloys Lead and its alloys Tin and its alloys Polypropylene Polyurethene Polyethylene HD Polyethylene LD 220 286-500 240-400 200-1600 180-1320 60 60-960 70-640 40 100-627 11-55 7-45 19-36 26-31 20-30 6-20 430 760-1280 500-800 400-2000 300-1400 400 250-1000 230-890 200 300-700 14-70 14-60 33-36 58 37 20 .MATERIAL PROPERTIES MATERIAL Carbon Steels Cast Irons Low Alloy Steel YIELD STRENGTH (Mpa) 260-1300 220-1030 500-1980 UTS (MPa) 500-880 400-200 680-2400 Mild Steel Stainless Steel. austenitic Stainless Steel.
FERROUS MATERIALS .
6 %.0.1%. High carbon Steel – 0.0. It can withstand upto to a temperature of 450 C General chemical composition of CS is C . S – 0.1.1 % to 1.30 % .CARBON STEELS Is an alloy of Iron and Carbon Contains 0.5 % 4. Medium Carbon steel – 0.56 %.1%.07.0.6 %. Si – 0. P – 0. 1.0.70 % 3.5 % of Carbon Based on Carbon Content it can be classified into 1.70 % . Mild steel .05 % .30 % 2. Mn – 1. .
05 0.27 0. Seamless Seamless.3 1.04 0.15 .35 0.3 0.9 0.035 0.035 0.CARBON STEEL – MATERIAL COMPOSITION MATERIAL A106 GrB (1/2”-14”) API 5L GrB (1/2”-14”) A53 GrB (1/2”-14”) A105 (S.6 0. CS pipe for high Temp & Pr services ERW ( E=0.1 P S 0.9 1 0.1.05 0.05 0.035 0.3 0.035 0.04 0.04 0.045 .15 0. CS pipe.W.06 0.) (1/2”-1½”) A216GrWCB 2” & above DESCRIPTION C Seamless.29 .85). CS pipe for low Temp services (Galv) Forged CS for ambient and high Temp services CS castings suitable for high Temp services CHEMICAL COMPOSTION Mn Si 0.35 0.
Nickel. Molybdenum. • WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF ALLOYING? . Manganese. Cobalt and Tungsten. Vanadium. Aluminium. Boron. Titanium. • Commonly used Alloying elements are Silicon. Chromium.ALLOY STEELS • Adding of Alloying elements to improve the characteristics of the material is termed as Alloy Steel.
PURPOSE OF ALLOYING 1. Better Wear resistance . Improved Machinability High or low temperature Stability Ductility Toughness 4. Improved Corrosion resistance 2. Better Hardenability 3.
6 %) Nickel (upto 5%) Titanium Tungsten Machinability Vanadium . forms strong carbides Wear resistance & strength Causes fine grain structure Disadvantage Increases brittleness Chromium Machinability.INFLUENCE OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS Alloying Aluminium (2 .15 – 0. weldability Manganese Molybdenum (0.5 %) Advantage Resistance to heat and oxidation Improves scale resistance Imparts strength Increases wear resistance (carbides) Corrosion resistance Hardness & Strength If above 5% corrosion resistance is improved even at high temp Increases tensile strength & machinability Improves hardenability High temp strength & impact resistance Corrosion resistance especially to chloride solutions Machinability Decreases decomposition of austenite Increases resistance to oxidation at high temp Decreases critical temperature Prevents precipitaion of Cromium Carbides Imparts strength Wear resistance Abrasion resistance Increases red hardness (hot working) Powerful deoxidiser.
15 0.2 .9 .2.0. superheated and hot reheat Steam 1.5 8 .15 0.3 .5 Cr Mo DESCRIPTION SERVICE 0.9 .0.05 Superheated steam piping system High Temp services Valves for AS pipes Mn Si 0.87 .6 Temp Alloy steel castings for Pr containing parts suitable for 0.0.18 0.7 high Temp services 0.4 .05 .0.2.9 .1.6 0.12 0.05 .1.6 1.75 0.0.1.3 .2.13 2 .6 0.6 0.08 .1.85 .6 0.5 0.0.13 HP.0.5 Pipe fitting alloy steel for moderate and elevated 0.2 .0.3 .87 .LOW ALLOY STEEL – MATERIAL COMPOSITION CHEMICAL COMPOSTION C Ferritic alloy steel pipe for high Temp services 0.9.
Martensitic stainless steel . Posses greater percentage of chromium which forms a chromium oxide film exposed to air that prevents chemical attack of moist air on the material surface Nickel retains the austenitic structure of steel Greater resistance to corrosion than all types of steels Classified into three types based on its micro structure 1. Austenitic stainless steel 2.changes the microstructure and based on that its varieties are obtained.STAINLESS STEEL Adding 11.5 % or greater chromium in iron. Ferritic stainless steel 3.
11 SERVICE Hydrocarbons.15 16-18 2-Mar 11 . Welded & seamless austenitic stainless steel 0.11 Forged fittings Valve castings Castings 0.F304 (2” & above) DESCRIPTION CHEMICAL COMPOSTION C 0.08 2 1.CF8 A182 Gr.27 1.11 8 .14 Corrosive process service Wrought austenitic stainless steel pipe fittings 0. chemicals.STAINLESS STEEL – MATERIAL COMPOSITION MATERIAL A312 GrTP304 A312 Gr.04 Mn 2 Cr 18-20 Mo Ni 8 .11 Flanges .08 0.08 2 18-20 8 . etc.WP304 A351 Gr.TP316L (1/2”-14”) A403 Gr.5 18-20 18-21 - 8 .
COPPER AND ITS ALLOYS • • • • • • • Used when heat and electric conductivity are important Theraml conductivity is high Alloys are brasses, Bronzes (Cu-Sn) and Cupronickels (Cu-Ni) Upto 20% Zn in Brass gives good corrosion resistance Bronzes display good strength with corrsion resistance Cupronickels have highest corrosion resistance among Cu alloys Cupronickels are used for heat exchanger tubing
NICKEL AND ITS ALLOYS
• • • •
Easy machinability and weldability Chloromet and Hastelloy are widely used other than Monel 400 Not resistant to oxidising environments Monel 400 is used to handle dilute sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid • Alkalis and sea water do not affect Nickel
ALUMINIUM AND ITS ALLOYS • Good thermal conductivity • Most workable metal • Highly resistant to atmospheric conditions. . fresh brackish or salt water • Not resistant to corrosion • Loses strength rapidly at 1750C. industrial fumes.
TITANIUM • Strong and medium weight • Titanium Oxide is formed which prevents corrosion • Resistant to Nitric acid of all concentrations except fuming nitric acid • Welding requires inert atmosphere • Loses strength above 4000C • Provides good resistance to hydrochloric acid when alloyed with 30% Molybdenum • Not affected by impingement and crevice corrosion .
seamless pipes & tubes Ni-Cr-Fe alloy for seamless pipes & tubes Ni-Cr-Fe alloy for condenser tube plates Al alloy drawn seamless tubes Al alloy extruded tubes & seamless pipes Seamless and welded Ti & Ti alloy pipes Ni-Cr-Mo-Columbium alloy. seamless pipes & tubes Ni alloy forgings Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo alloys.COMMON NON-FERROUS PIPING MATERIALS (METALS) ASTM Des. seamless pipes & tubes Heat exchanger services Moderate corrosion resistance Heat exchanger tubing Alkaline solution. sea water Dilute sulphuric acid Hydro fluoric acids Condenser tubing Cryogenic Cryogenic and low temp Nitric acid & sea water High concentration acid Forged pipe fittings Wear resistant services . DESCRIPTION SERVICES SB42 SB43 SB75 SB161 SB165 SB167 SB171 SB210 SB241 SB337 SB444 SB564 SB690 Seamless Cu pipes Seamless red brass pipes Seamless Cu tubes Ni seamless pipes & tubes Ni-Cu alloy.
45 0.1-2 - 0.2-1 0.5 - 0.4 max 58 0.060.050.30.5 0.4 - 0-2.5 max - 0.050. - 0.525. Co.NON-FERROUS MATERIALS COMPOSITION ASTM Des Si Cu Al Ni (Co) Pb Fe Zn Mn Ti P C Cr Others SB43 SB75 SB161 SB165 0.25 - SB564 SB690 0.4 max 6-25 Rem.2 - 0.5 0.050.05 0.10.25 max 0.2 0.5 1-1. N .240 0.4 99 min 45-72 0.4 0.20.15 max 0.35 max 0.75 max 0.05 -1 1 max 0.535 2022 Mo Mo.51.350.050.25 2023 Cb.015 -0.031.5 max 84.050.35 max 0.5 max 0. Mo Sn SB171 SB241 SB444 6-11 0.9 min 0. - 1-3 2 max 0.1 0.02 max 0.7 5 max 0.5 58-62 0.52 -3 0.070. Ta.10.25 0.5 max 0.686 99.6 0.5 - 20-99 23.2-50 Rem.25 - 0.1 max 1429 0.04 - 0.04 max 0.015 max 0.
NON-METALLIC PIPES .
COMMONLY USED NON-METALLIC PIPING MATERIALS • • • • • • Plastics – Thermoplastics and Thermosetting plastics Concrete Ceramic Asbestos-Cement Glass Rubber .
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) • • • • Tough and exceptionally resistant to chemical attack Rigid unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride is thermoplastic material Pipes are manufactured by extrusion Fittings. flanges and valves are manufactured by injection moulding .
“normal-impact” grade Type-II. Type-I.TYPES OF PVC There are three types of PVC pipes. “high-impact” grade Type-IV. newer grade .
PVC 1220 TYPE – II 1000 psi PVC. 2110.IV 1600 psi PVC 4116 . PVC 212.PVC MATERIAL PROPERTIES PROPERTIES Hydrostatic design pressure Temperature Grades available TYPE – I 2000 psi 160 OF PVC 1120. PVC 2116 TYPE .
ADVANTAGES OF PVC PIPES • No physical or little deterioration when exposed to direct sunlight. unlike other plastics • Does not support combustion • No scales are formed over smooth inside surface .
APPLICATIONS OF PVC • Extensively used in highly corrosive application involving acids. alkalis. alsohols and many chemical • In oil fields as it can carry sour crude oil to which PVC is inert and paraffin built-up is minimum • Salt-water disposal in oil fields • Gas transmission service • Cold water line in Industry as it is non-toxic and doesn’t add any odour or taste to water • For vent piping for removal of acid fumes and corrosive gases . salt solution.
TETRAFLUROETHYLENE (TEFLON) • Unaffected by alkalis and acids except flourines and chlorines. molten metals at elevated temperatures (260 0C max) • TFE + Chlorine = CTFE. which is highly resistant to corrosion by acids and alkalis up to 180 0C • TFE components can be prepared only by powder metallurgy .
POLYETHYLENE (PE) • Produced from hydrocarbons and ethylene under high temperature and extremely high temperature pressure • Types – Low. Medium and High Density • HDPE is not very flexible as LDPE • 2% Carbon black is added to increase weather resistance .
APPLICATIONS OF PE • • • • • HDPE is used in jet wells and farm sprinklers Salt water disposal lines Chemical waste lines Gas gathering systems Conduit for power and telephone cables .
ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE (ABS) • It produced by injection or compression moulding • Exhibit good toughness and tensile strength .
APPLICATIONS OF PE • Service of inorganic acids. bases and salts • Sewage piping • Crude oil and gas piping .
hand lay-up moulding and filament winding.THERMOSETTING PLASTICS Generally produced by centrifugal casting. . Major resins are Epoxy and Polyester resins and generally reinforced with glass or blue asbestos fibre.
waste process water and sewage • Used in paper industries for pulp stock wastes and dyes • It resists fouling. salt atmosphere and marine organism • Used in food and beverage industry . neutral or basic salt solutions.EPOXY • Used in transportation of acids.
CONCRETE PIPES .
• Used for sewage and industrial waste. AASHO M170. culverts. water supply . ASTM C412.CONCRETE PIPING MATERIALS • Types – reinforced and non-reinforced • Some non-reinforced concrete pipe material specifications are ASTM C14. • Non-reinforced pipe sizes vary from 12” to 24” • Some reinforced concrete pipe material specifications are ASTM C76. etc. storm waste. etc. AASHO M86. SS-P-375.
etc. AWWA C400.ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPES • Not used very commonly • Some standard material specification are ASTM C296. • Used for drains and industrial waste . SS-P-331.
PIPE LININGS .
COMMONLY USED LINING MATERIALS • • • • • • Rubber Plastic Lead Glass Epoxy resin Synthetic resin .
semi-hard and hard rubbers • Commonly used synthetic rubbers are PolychloropreneNeoprene. Nitrile rubber and Thiokol • Cannot be used for strongly oxidising conditions or halogenated carbon .RUBBER LINED PIPES • Natural and Synthetic rubber linings are used to counteract corrosion • Generally used in the temperature range of –20 OC to 50 OC • Commonly used natural rubbers are soft rubber. Butyl rubber.
non-toxic and smooth bore reduces friction • PTFE is chemically inert and used from –270 OC to 260 OC • Polyvinyl flouride. fluoroethylene propylene and polypropylene can be added to enhance the range of PTFE • PVC provides tough and heavy-duty finish resistant to most acid and marine growth .PLASTIC LINING • PTFE and PVC are important lining materials • Used for chemical resistance. resist abrasion. corrosion protection.
organic acids and alkalis • Can be alloyed to improve mechanical properties . hydrofluoric acids.LEAD LININGS • Lead lining is useful for most corrosive fluids and sulphuric acid below 80% concentration • Should not be used for nitric acid. hydrochloric acids.
GLASS LININGS • Glass enamel (glass like) inorganic compositions are used as linings • Bonded to mild steel by fusion on metal surface above 750 OC • Provide good resistance against acid attack and abrasion • Cheap alternative in many situations • Temperature range of –20 OC to 250 OC .
EPOXY RESIN LININGS • Good resistance to alkalis and most acids except strongly oxidising ones • Good resistance to abrasion by suspended particles due to glossy nature of lining • Used mostly in natural gas pipe lines .
SYNTHETIC RESIN LININGS • Sprayed phenol formaldehyde can be used when expected corrosion is less • Cannot be used above 80 OC • Because of sterile and non-tainting properties it is used in food processing industries • Mostly used to line welded steel vessels .
LINED PIPES SAMPLES .
PIPING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION .
What is a Material Specification? A Piping Material Specification is an engineering specification that contains requirements for the selection of materials to be used in the construction and fabrication for all process and utility piping. .
FEATURES OF A MATERIAL SPECIFICATION • Material of construction. end connections and wall thicknesses for various ranges • Individual line class of the piping materials • Codes and standards relevant to the pipes and fittings of the specified material class • Line class coding system • Pressure-Temperature ratings for various fittings and limiting sizes of fittings • Other general notes and design criteria as applicable to the material class . end construction.
33 -29 to 300 5 6 A21B A37A SS Aluminium 19. BFW Hydrocarbons. nitrogen liquid.25 10. hot nitrogen Pure water(pump seal cooling) WPF. Water.33 1.4 -29 to 150 100 7 8 9 10 B1C B1EH D21A S5A CS CS 304 SS CS polypropylene lined 52 101. flare. chlorine liquid Hydrocarbons for HDPE only (Dupont B1E) Liquid ethylene (Cryogenic) Chemical sewer. steam tracing Steam condensate. other process Pneumatic conveying 4 A21A 304 SS 19. catalyst solutions. regeneration wastes (H2SO4 and NaOH) . additive solutions. antifoam. NaOH. brine. fuel gas. lube oil. carbonate. caustic. flue gas. seal oil.CLASS SERVICE INDEX – IDEA STANDARDS SI NO 1 2 3 CLASS A1A A1AR A1B MATERIAL CS CS CS MAX P (kg/cm2) 20 20 20 T RANGE (OC) -29 to 300 -29 to 300 -45 to 400 SERVICE Fuel oil.55 -29 to 260 -200 -29 to 80 Chlorine vapour. brine II Demin.
SOME MATERIAL COMPARISONS .
>20 kgcm2 and temp>260 OC • Most projects require multinational specification • Economy precedes the choice of code for material specification.GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS • Seamless pipes are mostly preferred in power piping. after design requirements . butt welded may also be used • API 5L pipes are not permitted by IBR for design pr.
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