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Two Stroke Engines

Will need CDX Disk 4-1 on day 2

2 Stoke Engines
Everything a 4 stroke engine does in 2 revolutions a 2 stroke engine does in 1 revolution of the crankshaft

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2 Stroke Engines
The next page in your notebooks will be 2 stroke engines page #_________ There will be a 2 Stroke Quiz _______ Lets start with the names of the parts

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2 Stoke Engines part names


Cylinder Combustion Exhaust port chamber Still uses a flywheel (not shown)

Crankcase

Piston Connecting Intake port Rod Transfer port


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Reed valve
Crankshaft

2 Stroke Engines
Turn your page over and lets start with the strokes

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Intake/________ Stroke
TDC

BDC

Reed Valve Is sucked open

Piston moves from BDC to TDC


Air/Fuel/Oil mixture is sucked into crankcase
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Compare intake strokes


Two Stroke

Four Stroke

Piston BDC to TDC A/F/O mixture sucked into crankcase

Piston TDC to BDC A/F mixture sucked into cylinder

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Down to bottom of page


TDC

BDC

Reed Valve Shuts

Piston gets to TDC


Air/Fuel/Oil mixture is now trapped in crankcase
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Crankcase compression
TDC

(primary compression)

BDC

Reed Valve sealing

Piston moves back To BDC


Air/Fuel/Oil mixture is now pressurized in crankcase
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Crankcase compression
Is only a few pounds of pressure per square inch (psi) [very weak] Cylinder compression in a four stroke engine was several psi [very strong] The crankcase in a two stroke engine has to be very small so we can build some pressure when the piston is moving to BDC
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What is going to happen when the top of piston gets to here?

Crankcase Compression

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A/F/O mixture squirts into cylinder because of crankcase compression

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Piston reaches BDC


Cylinder fills with A/F/O mixture

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Compression Stroke Intake/________

Another A/F/O mixture is sucked into crankcase while


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First one is compressed in cylinder

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Down to bottom of page


TDC

BDC

Piston is pounded Down the cylinder

Piston gets to TDC


Air/Fuel/Oil mixture is ignited in cylinder
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Blow-by adds to crankcase compression

Crankcase Compression

What is going to happen when the piston gets here?


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Power/Exhaust Stroke
TDC

(TDC-BDC)

BDC

Still closed Exhaust port is uncovered and exhaust starts leaving


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Whats going to happen when the piston gets back to TDC


OK, I get it !

ANOTHER POWER STROKE


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Every time the piston reaches TDC, there is another power stroke !

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Lets make a chart

Stroke

Piston

A/F/O Mixture

Intake/Compression BTC-TDC Sucked into crankcase, another squeezed in cylinder Power/Exhaust TDC-BDC Blows-up and leaves, another squeezed in crankcase

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Lets make a chart

Stroke

Piston

A/F/O Mixture

Intake/Compression BTC-TDC Sucked into crankcase, another squeezed in cylinder Power/Exhaust TDC-BDC Blows-up and leaves, another squeezed in crankcase

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Lets make a chart

Stroke

Piston

A/F/O Mixture

Intake/Compression BTC-TDC Sucked into crankcase, another squeezed in cylinder Power/Exhaust TDC-BDC Blows-up and leaves, another squeezed in crankcase

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Lets make a chart

Stroke

Piston

A/F/O Mixture

Intake/Compression BTC-TDC Sucked into crankcase, another squeezed in cylinder Power/Exhaust TDC-BDC Blows-up and leaves, another squeezed in crankcase

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Lets make a chart

Stroke

Piston

A/F/O Mixture

Intake/Compression BTC-TDC Sucked into crankcase, another squeezed in cylinder Power/Exhaust TDC-BDC Blows-up and leaves, another squeezed in crankcase

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Lets make a chart

Stroke

Piston

A/F/O Mixture

Intake/Compression BTC-TDC Sucked into crankcase, another squeezed in cylinder Power/Exhaust TDC-BDC Blows-up and leaves, another squeezed in crankcase

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Lets make a chart

Stroke

Piston

A/F/O Mixture

Intake/Compression BTC-TDC Sucked into crankcase, another squeezed in cylinder Power/Exhaust TDC-BDC Blows-up and leaves, another squeezed in crankcase

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Lets make a chart

Stroke

Piston

A/F/O Mixture

Intake/Compression BTC-TDC Sucked into crankcase, another squeezed in cylinder Power/Exhaust TDC-BDC Blows-up and leaves, another squeezed in crankcase

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Reed valve on the side of crankcase

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Tuned Exhaust

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Tuned Exhaust

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Tuned Exhaust

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Tuned Exhaust

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Power stroke every revolution

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Lets watch CDX Disk 4-1


Look for two stroke with no reed valve

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Oil mixing
Pre-mix

Have to mix before filling tank

Oil injection

Has separate fuel and oil tank and carburetor to mix proper amounts
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Advantages
2 Stroke

4 Stroke

Smaller/lighter Cheaper Less friction No oil to change Quicker acceleration Operate at different angles

More efficient No oil to mix Less emissions Less exhaust smoke More low RPM power

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Fuel to Oil mixtures

16 to 1 40 to 1 100 to 1

25 to 1 50 to 1

32 to 1 75 to 1

Look in owners manual for exact ratio for your engine


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32 to 1 Mix
32 parts of gasoline to 1 part of oil 640 Think 5How 20 gals ozs ozX am . of . 128 Think oil I fuel going ozs for divided . would 640 .to Think figure oz by give of.32 .

32 ounces of gas to 1 ounce of oil me fuel Think . . .this or 640 . .5out? .ozs gallons Think . of fuel 32 pints of gas to 1 pint of oil 32 quarts of gas to 1 quart of oil 5 gallon gas can = How many ounces of oil
128 X 5 640

1 pint = 16 oz 2 pints = 1 qt 1 quart = 32 oz 4 quarts in a gal 32 X 4 = 128 1 gal = 128 oz


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20 32 640 64

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Fuel to Oil mixtures

16 to 1
40 to 1 100 to 1
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25 to 1
50 to 1

32 to 1
75 to 1

You figure it out

Lets say we are going snowmobiling for the Weekend and you have 1 quart of two stroke oil
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How many gallons of fuel will be needed to mix with one quart of oil with a 50 to 1 ratio
1 pint = 16 oz 2 pints = 1 qt 1 quart = 32 oz 4 quarts in a gal 32 X 4 = 128 1 gal = 128 oz
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There is always more than one way to figure something out

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Here is how I figured it out


32 oz times 50 = 1600 I will need 1600 oz of fuel for 32 oz of oil with a 50 to 1 ratio Since there are 128 oz in a gallon, divide 1600 by 128 1 pint = 16 oz

2 pints = 1 qt 1 quart = 32 oz 4 quarts in a gal 32 X 4 = 128 1 gal = 128 oz


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Mixing oil is critical


If you forget to add oil for one tank of gas, you will destroy your engine If you mix too much oil with the gas

Your engine will smoke a lot It will be hard to start It will have less power It might foul the spark plug (not start) You will cause lots of engine wear
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If you dont mix enough oil with the gas

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Two stroke piston


Notice the piston skirt scars
(lack of oil)

(only have compression rings) (prevents rings from rotating And catching on cylinder ports)

Notice the 2 ring lands

Notice the ring pins

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How to identify from outside


Two stroke

Four stroke

Exhaust port in center of cylinder Small crankcase

Exhaust port in end of cylinder Large crankcase

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Good uses of two stroke engines


Because it is light, can be used at any angle, operates at high RPM

Weed eaters Chain saws Boats Snowmobiles Dirt bikes

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Usually dont see 2 strokes in


Because of pollution, efficiency, lack of low RPM power, and convenience of not mixing oil

Cars Trucks Road bikes Lawn mowers Generators


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Multiple cylinder two strokes


The crankcase below each piston has to be sealed to create crankcase compression for that cylinder

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Two stroke engine questions?

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