RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING

DR. GAURAV DESAI

SOME FACTS
• Average life expectancy in India has risen from 34 years in 1947 to 63.2 years in mid 2003. (from the office of registrar
general of India)

• In Japan life expectancy is 82 years.
(UNICEF)

DOES IT MEAN EVERYTHING IS HUNKY DORY??
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 2

POINTS TO PONDER
• W.H.O technical report series 2002, reports:
Ø Incidence of Rheumatoid arthritis (/100000 population)

Ø Incidence of Osteoarthritis (/100000 population)

08/05/09

RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING

3

CONT…
• Survey conducted by ISEC (Institute for Social and Economic Change), Bangalore in 2007: Reported alarming increase in number of women reaching an early menopause. Lowest threshold in the world at 29 – 34 years.
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 4

CONT…
• News report by the PTI (Press Trust Of India) in 2007: Early ageing setting in in BPO employees. • NCRB (National Crime reports bureau) report 2006. India contributes more than 10% of suicides in the world. 67% raise in suicide rate in India since
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 5

PROBLEM???
• Hastened ageing amongst the population. • Leading to faster degeneration of tissues of the body. • Increased incidences of diseases affecting younger individuals. • Diseases at both, mental and physical levels. • Early burnout.
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 6

REASONS???
• Dramatic changes in diet and lifestyle. • Increased levels of stress, mental and physical. • Climate change. • Technological advances have also contributed greatly. (e.g. frequent air travel) • Change in family structure,
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 7

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS???
• Use of diets and supplements.
– Less emphasis on diet; or contradictory – Use of antioxidant supplements like Vitamin C, Vitamin E etc.

• Use of cosmetics.
– e.g. Botox,Aigireline

• Use of hormones.
– e.g. Growth Hormone, Oxytocin, estrogen.
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 8

CONT…
• Quick fix not an answer • Feeling of well being, beauty from within, naturally. • Not creating facades by potions, pills, lotions. • Ancient wisdom advocated enhancers for beauty and well being. • Now, sole dependency on external supplements.
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 9

INTERESTING TO NOTE
• Millions of dollars spent worldwide on invasive and non invasive cosmetics. • US market for cosmetics is estimated worth $11700 Million. (American Society Of
Plastic Surgeons)

• Indian aesthetic/ cosmetic surgery industry registered growth rate of 34% in terms of revenue generation
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 10

CONT…
• Position of Ayurveda:
– Estimated that global Ayurveda industry is about $14.2 Billion. – Indian market size is estimated to be 8000 crores. – Most of it contributed by products of cosmetic and lifestyle applications.
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 11

CONT…
• HENCE: Exponential growth in cosmetic industry. Renewed interest in geriatrics. Studies, researches in Gerontology. Huge interest in Rejuvenation therapies. {Results 1 - 10 of about 466,000 for
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 12

MISCONCEPTIONS!!!
Ayurvedic Rejuvenation Therapy in Kovalam, Kerala 8 Days  About Package Aim : For the colplete relaxation of the body,mind and soul. Treatments included : Relaxation Massage, General Massage, Head Massage, Feet Massage, Synchronic Massage, Thaila Dhara, Thakradhara, Medicated Steam Bath, podikizhi, etc. Duration : 2 to 2.30 hrs/day. • Total Cost G B P 595 • Package Includes • Airport Transfer pick up/drop out at Trivandrum Airport. • Package Includes accommodation in A/C Rooms. • Full board Ayurveda Vegetarian or Non Vegetarian food. • All taxes. • Half day sightseeing of Trivandrum. • • • •
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 13

ANSWERS PROVIDED BY AYURVEDA
• Geriatrics has always been included in eight branches of Ayurveda. • Holistic approach professed by Ayurveda is ideal. • Complete package to fight consequences of change in diet and lifestyle available. • Includes Diet, Drugs, Regimen
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 14

PHYLOSOPHICAL BACKGROUND
• Long healthy life has been a priority in human life since antiquity. • Hymns and prayers in Vedas devoted to healthy living and longevity. • Concept of immortal nature of Jeeva, rebirth. • Further flourished during the period of recording of Ayurvedic literature.
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 15

RASAYANA??
• One of eight clinical specialties of Ayurveda. • Aimed at rejuvenation including geriatric care. • Specialized procedure. • Includes:
– Rejuvenative recipes. – Dietary regimen. – Special health promoting conduct
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 16

CONT…
• sÉÉpÉÉåmÉÉrÉÉå ÌWû zÉxiÉÉlÉÉÇ UxÉÉSÏlÉÉÇ UxÉÉrÉlÉqÉç II Ca. Chi. 1/1/8 • xuÉxjÉxrÉÉåeÉïxMüUÇ rɨÉÑ iÉSè uÉ×wrÉÇ iÉSìxÉÉrÉlÉqÉç II Ca. Chi.
1/1/5

• Accelerated and appropriated nutrition leading to improved
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 17

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES
Samhita period • Charaka Samhita
– Rasayana described eloquently and elaborately. – Described in 1st chapter of Chikitsa sthana. – Four Padas or parts described. – Emphasis on maintaining positive health
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 18

RASAYANA IN CHARAKA

08/05/09

RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING

19

CONT…
• Sushruta Samhita
– Rasayana described in chapters 27 – 30 of chikitsa sthana. – Moderate description of Rasayana as compared to Charaka Samhita. – Four parts in the chapter, two deal with Divya Rasayanas. (Not available and hence of academic value only)
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 20

RASAYANA IN SUSHRUTA

08/05/09

RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING

21

CONT…
• Ashtanghridaya
– Compiled from Charaka and Sushruta. – Rasayana describes in Uttara Tantra, chapter 39. i.e. the last but one chapter of the treatise. – Deleted Divya Rasayanas, added newer drugs. – The work was in tune with the requirements of time.
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 22

CONT…
• Later, with advent of Rasashastra, various minerals, metals, poisons used as Rasayanas. • References of use of Rasayana drugs in increasing, decreasing dosages with specific Anupana. • Texts in later periods like Bhavaprakasha, Sharangdhara have limited mention of Rasayana.
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 23

CONT…
• To summarize:
– Rasayana most popular in the period of Charaka. – Occurrence of diseases increased, therapeutics elaborated by subsequent authors. – Rasayana, particularly Kutipraveshika became less popular. – Rasayana drugs started being used along with therapeutics.
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 24

MODE OF ACTION???
RASAYANA ACQUISITION, CIRCULATION, MOVEMENT OF NUTRITION TO BODY TISSUES AND TISSUE PERFORATION
RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING

08/05/09

25

CONT…
• Direct enrichment of rasa (Nutrient plasma) e.g. Shatavari, Dugdha • Improving Agni (Digestion and metabolism) e.g. Bhallataka • Promoting competence of srotas (microcirculatory channels, improve bioavailability)
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 26

RASAYA NA

CONT…
SROT AS

R ASA

AG NI IMPROVED NOURISHMENT IMPROVED QUALITY OF TISSUES

LONGEV ITY
08/05/09

IMMUNI TY REJUVENAT RASAYANA UP TO DATE IONUNDERSTANDING

MENTAL COMPETENCE
27

THEORETICAL PREMISE FOR REJUVENATION
• Quenching of free radicals, using membrane stabilizing agents. • Using Lathyrogens-which are capable of inhibiting cross-linkage of collagen in the connective tissue. • In certain autoimmune conditions, using immunosuppressant. • Interestingly the drugs, which are the main ingredients of certain Ayurveda preparations, contain most of the above
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 28

CLASSIFICATION OF RASAYANA

08/05/09

RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING

29

CONT…

08/05/09

RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING

30

CONT…

08/05/09

RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING

31

PREREQUISITES
• Shodhana therapy administered compulsorily before Rasayana. • Mental purification also given importance. • Similie: from Sushruta Samhita:
– Like a cloth needs cleaning before dyeing, similarly Rasayana doesn't show expected results without shodhana .
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 32

METHOD OF USE
1. Vatatapika rasayana: Less vigorous. Person remains in society. Exposed to sun, air. Continues normal routine. More convenient and cheap.

08/05/09

RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING

33

CONT…
1. KUTIPRAVESHIKA RASAYANA Specialized indoor regime. Rigorous process. Person placed in a specially designed KUTI. Undergo purificatory procedures. Superior benefits.
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 34

MEDHYA RASYANA
• Improved intellect is an attribute of Rasayana. • Certain drugs specifically promote pradnya. • Sushruta describes Divya aushadhis. • Charaka describes 4 medhya Rasayanas. • References also found in Vagbhata and other texts.
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 35

NAIMITTIKA RASYANA
• Subsequent development of Rasayana. • Concept emerged in Sushruta, clearly stated by Dalhana. • Disease specific Rasayanas. • Promotes specific vitality in specific diseases. • E.g. Shilajatu in Prameha. • E.g. Tuvaraka in Kushtha. • E.g. Shalparni in Hridroga.
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING

36

RASAYANA DRUGS
• Herbal and mineral drugs having Rasayana effects have been listed by seers. • Used either singly of as compound formulations. • Certain dravyas are used in increasing dosage generally with specific dietary regime. • Possess anabolising and virilising
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 37

ACHARA RASYANA
• Unique concept. • Emphasis not only on drug. • Behavior and conduct greatly influences health. • Improved social behavior, indirect effects on health. • Reduces stress and anxiety and emotional disturbances. • Promotes pronounced anabolic state of mind and body.
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 38

AJASRIKA RASAYANA
• Continuous consumption of nutritious diet. • Body and consequently longevity depends on Ahara. • Aimed to maintain optimum nutrition by way of direct nourishment. • Use of Ghrita, Dugdha is advocated in daily diet.
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 39

SELECTION OF RASAYANA
• Selection based on:
– Vaya Su. Chi. – Prakriti – Satmya – Agni – Dhatus – Srotas – Desha – Kala
08/05/09

mÉÔuÉï uÉrÉÍxÉ qÉkrÉå uÉÉ II

zÉUÌSuÉxliÉå zÉÑYsÉmɤÉå mÉëzÉxiÉåÅWûÌlÉ......||
RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 40

ARHATA FOR RASAYANA
• A man who has fortified himself with resolution and purpose. • Full of faith and single-mindedness. • Having cast off all evils. • Nurturing goodwill for all creatures.
• Charaka Samhita.

08/05/09

RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING

41

Classification of Rasayana by: Sharangdhara

08/05/09

RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING

42

08/05/09

RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING

43

CONCEPT OF NITYA RASAYANA
• • • • • • • Proposed by Ashtang Hridaya. Truthfulness. Calm. Control over indriyas. Follows sadvrutta. Indicates ideal behaviour. May help a great deal in countering day to day stress and anxiety.
RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 44

08/05/09

CONCLUSION
• Conventional understanding, that Rasayana is geriatric care is untrue. • Rasayana is primarily of promotive value. • Rejuvenate body and mind. • It is the Science of Nutrition. • Proper nutrition is primary attribute of Rasayana. • Longevity is one of its secondary
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 45

REFERENCES
Charaka Samhita. Sushruta Samhita. Ashtanga hridaya. Kayachikitsa, Acharya Vidyadhara Shukla • Ayurvediya rasayana sara. • History of Medicine in India. • Internet. • • • •
08/05/09 RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING 46

TH AN KY OU

08/05/09

RASAYANA UP TO DATE UNDERSTANDING

47