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CHAPTER 3 : PAVEMENT MATERIALS

• Road surface or pavement is the durable surface material laid down on an area intended to

sustain vehicular or foot traffic, such as a road or walkway.
• In the past cobblestones and granite setts were extensively used, but these surfaces have mostly been replaced by asphalt or concrete.

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MATERIAL USED IN HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION

I. ii. iii. iv. v.

Aggregate Bitumen and asphalt Tar Cement Steel reinforcement.

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AGGREGATE

•Coarse particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates. •Aggregates are a component of composite materials such as concrete and asphalt concrete •Aggregate serves as reinforcement to add strength to the overall composite material. •Due to the relatively high hydraulic conductivity value as compared to most soils, aggregates are widely used in drainage applications such as foundation and french drains, septic drain fields, retaining wall drains, and road side edge drains. •Aggregates are also used as base material under foundations, roads, and railroads.

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less tensile strength than concrete. although fatigue from repeated loading over time. Outside the U. AND ASPHALT •Advantages: low noise. the tendency to become slick and soft in hot weather and a certain amount of hydrocarbon pollution to soil and groundwater or waterways. the product is often called bitumen. • Disadvantages:less durability than other paving methods. •The viscous nature of the bitumen binder allows asphalt concrete to sustain significant plastic deformation. where hot mix asphalt would cool too much on the long trip from the asphalt plant to the construction site.. or cold mix asphalt. 4 . and perceived ease of repair. warm mix asphalt.• Has been widely used since 1920–1930. thick gravel bases or stabilization of the subgrade with portland cement or lime may be required. BITUMEN In American English. •The terms asphalt and bitumen are often used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance. relatively low cost compared with other paving methods. asphalt (or asphalt cement) is the carefully refined residue from the distillation process of selected crude oils. •Asphalt is categorized as hot mix asphalt (hma). • Most asphalt surfaces are laid on a gravel base. •Hot mix asphalt is applied at temperatures over 300 F • Warm mix asphalt is applied at temperatures of 200 to 250 degrees F •cold mix asphalt is often used on lower volume rural roads. • In areas with very soft or expansive subgrades such as clay or peat.S.

and can bind other materials together.CEMENT •Cement is a binder. •The word "cement" traces to the romans 5 . a substance that sets and hardens independently.

mortar and most non-speciality grout. 6 . the most commonly used type of cement (often referred to as OPC). called 'clinker'. •Portland cement is a basic ingredient of concrete. •The resulting hard substance. •The most common use for Portland cement is in the production of concrete. is then ground with a small amount of gypsum into a powder to make 'Ordinary Portland Cement'.PORTLAND CEMENT •Cement is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate) with small quantities of other materials (such as clay) to 1450 °C in a kiln.

Rebar is typically manufactured in grades 40. 7 . or a deformed bar. reinforcement steel.STEEL REINFORCEMENT •Also known as reinforcing steel. •Rebar is available in different grades and specifications that vary in yield strength. and percentage of elongation. 60. chemical composition. is a common steel bar. •The grade designation is equal to the minimum yield strength of the bar in ksi (1000 psi) for example grade 60 rebar has a minimum yield strength of 60 ksi. and is commonly used as a tensioning device in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures holding the concrete in compression. •usually formed from carbon steel. ultimate tensile strength. and 75. and is given ridges for better mechanical anchoring into the concrete.

Types And Grades Of Aggregate Three main types of rock are used to produce crushed rock aggregates: Igneous Solidified molten rocks (eg basalt. 8 . granite) Sedimentary Created by settlement of particles (eg gritstones) or organic remains (eg limestone) in ancient seas Metamorphic Created by quartzites) heat or pressure (eg hornfels.

Elongation Test f.Floatation Test l. Softening Test h. Ductility Test k. Flakiness Index Test e. 9 .TYPES OF TESTS ON MATERIALS a.Aggregate Impact Value Test b. Aggregate Crushing Value Test d. Soundness Test. Flash and Fire Point Test j. Penetration Test g. Viscosity Test i. Polished Stone Value Test c.

• Aggregate mass will be taken.36 mm. •Hammer with 13.pass >30 % fail 10 .5 to 14 kg will be release from the height of 380mm and will driven in a 15 times on aggregate. • Size aggregate : passing sieve 14mm and retain 10 mm. • Agregate were filling into mould in one layer and will be driven by rod in 25 times.Aggregate Impact Value Test BS 812: Part 112: 1990 • Determine aggregate resistance due to impact. aggregate will be sieve with size of sieve is 2. • After finished.36 mm x 100 % total mass < 30 % . • AIV were determine with a formulae : AIV = mass of aggregate passing sieve of 2.

Polishing sample iii. Skid resistance measurement.Polished STone Value Test • Only conducted on aggregate that be used as a wearing coarse. • This test consist 3 stages: i. • Polishing level affect skid resistance of pavement. • Polishing value of aggregate show of aggregate resistance due to wheel vehicles. Sample preparation ii. 11 .

•Then inserted into the compression machine for 10 minutes and will be compress by 400 KN load.36 mm sieve and the mass will be determined.36 mm x 100 % total mass 12 .Aggregate Crushing Value Test BS812 : Part 110 : 1990 • To determine the strength of aggregate resistance to crushing under the applied compressive load. • Aggregate will be sieve in in 2. • Normal size : passing 14 mm sieve and 10 mm retain ( 3000 g ) • Aggregate were fill into mold in three layers and each layer were driven by 25 times. ACV = mass of aggregate passing sieve of 2.

• Classified longest when longest dimension is more than 1. • Aggregate size to be tested is 63 mm to 6.Elongation Index BS812 : Part 1: 1975 • To determine the percentage of the longest aggregate.3 mm.8 times from average size. EI = Retain mass x 100 % Total mass 13 .

6 of average size. • Classified as flat when the thickness is less than 0.Flakiness Index Test BS 812 : Section 105.3 mm FI = Mass of aggregate passing x100 % Total mass 14 . • Aggregate to be tested is in size of 63 mm to 6.1 : 1989 •Purpose : To determine percentage of flat aggregate.

load and temperature are known.Penetration Test (AASHTO T49-84) •To determine the hardness of the material. 15 . •Using a standard needle under the load of 100 grams for 5 seconds at a temperature of 20 degrees celsius. •High penetration value indicates the material is soft. •Defined as the distance (in 1 / 10) standard needle puncture of the time.

•Soft spot is defined as the temperature at which bitumen is unable to support the steel ball and began to soften.SOFTENING TEST •To determine the temperature at which phase changes occur in the bitumen. 16 .

VISCOSITY TEST To determine the viscosity of the bitumen. Defined as the resistance of a fluid to flow. Two types of viscosity : absolute or dynamic viscosity and kinematic. 17 .

The method used is the Cleveland open cup method. the vapor will be liberated and embrace if any sources of ignition.Flash and Fire Point Test When the bitumen is heated at high temperatures. Flash point indicates the temperature at which bitumen can be heated without danger of fire generated in the presence of the fire. 18 .

blown type bitumen and other bituminous products as per IS: 1208 – 1978. The principle is : The ductility of a bituminous material is measured by the distance in cm to which it will elongate before breaking when a standard briquette specimen of the material is pulled apart at a specified speed and a specified temperature. The apparatus required for this test: i) Standard mould ii) Water bath iii) Testing machine 19 .DUCTILITY TEST This test is done to determine the ductility of distillation residue of cutback bitumen.

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Objectives of asphalt mix design The design of an asphalt mix is largely a matter of selecting and proportioning materials to optimise the engineering properties in relation to the desired behaviour in service. although most tests can be used for other mix types with suitable interpretation of results. Procedures for designing asphalt mixes have been generally developed around testing of dense graded mixes and determination of optimum binder content. The overall objective for the design of dense graded asphalt paving mixes is to determine (within the limits of project specifications) a cost-effective blend and gradation of aggregates and binder that yields a mix 21 .

6. Sufficient voids in the total compacted mix to allow for a slight amount of in place compaction by traffic and bitumen expansion due to temperature increases. 4. 5. proper aggregate texture and hardness to provide sufficient skid resistance. Sufficient mix stability to satisfy the demands of traffic without distortion or displacement. Sufficient workability to permit efficient placement of the mix without segregation and without sacrificing stability and performance. bleeding and loss of stability. A maximum void content to limit the permeability of harmful air and moisture into the mix. For surface mixes. 3. without flushing.Characteristics of asphaltic concrete mix 1.Sufficient binder to ensure a durable pavement. 22 . 2.

23 . regardless of the actual tests and procedures used: 1. Measurement of volumetric properties of compacted mix. 5. Selection of mix type.An overview of the design process Asphalt mix design involves the following basic steps that are similar in concept. Mixing and compaction of asphalt mix to a density that is representative of in-service conditions. 2. if required. Combination of aggregates to meet target grading. 4. 9. Selection of component materials. 8. Selection of Job Mix. 6. 3. Mechanical testing of compacted samples. Verification of design properties on samples of manufactured asphalt. if required. Selection of target binder content or range. 7.

Developed by Bruce Marshall & the U. Corps of Engineers. 24 .S.MARSHALL MIX DESIGN METHOD . Objective: To determine the optimum asphalt content for a particular aggregate blend and asphalt to be used.

(A) Mixing temperature: at asphalt viscosity of 170 ± 20 cSt (B) Compaction temperature: at asphalt viscosity of 280 ± 30 cSt (C) Compactive Effort: 35. 50 or 75 blows with a Marshall hammer (10 lbs. Prepare asphalt concrete specimens (4 inches in diameter & 2. 5 different asphalt contents are used.5 inches in height) for a range of asphalt content at and near the estimated optimum asphalt content.PROCEDURES: 1. 25 . 18 inches drop) on each side of the specimen. (D) Number of Samples: 3 replicates at each asphalt content Typically.

ADDING ASPHALT TO AGGREGATE 26 .

MIXING OF AGGREGATE AND ASPHALT 27 .

Placing asphalt mixture in a compaction mold 28 .

Proving Ring Flowmeter Breaking Head 29 .

s.s. % Asphalt 5. % Asphalt (E) % VMA v. % Asphalt (F) % VFA v.4.s.s. Obtain % Asphalt at 4% air voids 30 . % Asphalt (C) % Air Voids v.s. % Asphalt (B) Marshall Flow v.s. Plot (A) Marshall Stability v. % Asphalt (D) Bulk Density v.

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The five mix criteria to check against are: (A) Marshall stability (B) Marshall flow (C) Air Voids (D) VMA (E) VFA 32 .% AC at 4% air voids: 6.7 6. Verify mix design criteria at the optimum asphalt content.

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