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Definition of Signal, Analog and Digital signal Waveform of Analog and Digital signal Differences between Analog and Digital signal Frequency Spectrum used in communication Introduction to Communication System Need for Modulation Types of Modulation

Signal, Analog & Digital Signal

In electronics a signal is an electric current or electromagnetic field used to convey data from one place to another Analog signal which is a continuous signal that contains time-varying quantities Digital signal refers to an electrical signal that is converted into a pattern of signal has a discrete value at each sampling point.

Analog and Digital Signal Waveform

Analog Vs Digital signal


Frequency Spectrum used in communication

Introduction to Communication System

Communication is a process of conveying message at a distance

Three basic components.

Transmitter Channel Receiver

Transmitter is the equipment which converts physical message, such as sound, words, pictures etc., into corresponding electrical signal. Receiver is equipment which converts electrical signal back to the physical message Channel may be either transmission line or free space, which provides transmission path between transmitter and receiver.

Communication is the ability to send and receive messages. 1.People to people 2.People to machine 3.Machine to people

4.Machine to machine

Need for modulation

Modulation: Modulation is defined as the process by which some characteristics (i.e. amplitude, frequency, and phase) of a carrier are varied in accordance with a modulating wave. Modulation is performed at the transmitting end Demodulation: Demodulation is the reverse process of modulation, which is used to get back the original message signal. Demodulation is performed at the receiving end

In analog modulation sinusoidal signal is used as carrier where as in digital modulation pulse train is used as carrier.

Need for modulation: Modulation is needed in a communication system to achieve the following basic needs 1) Multiplexing 2) Practicability of antennas 3) Narrow banding

Types of Modulation

Continuous wave modulation (CW): When the carrier wave is continuous in nature the modulation process is known as continuous wave modulation. Pulse modulation: When the carrier wave is a pulse in nature the modulation process is known as Pulse modulation