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Federalism:
States and Nations

3

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Video: The Big Picture

3

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Learning Objectives
3.1
Define federalism and explain why we have it

3

3.2

Establish the basis for federalism in the Constitution

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Learning Objectives
3.3
Trace the evolution of American federalism

3

3.4

Analyze how federal grants structure national and state government relations

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Learning Objectives
3.5
Evaluate the arguments for and against federalism

3

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Video: The Basics

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Sectarian Violence in Afghanistan

3.1

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Federalism as a System of Government
 The Nature of Federalism

3.1

 Comparing American Federalism

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The Nature of Federalism
 Federalism
 Explained  Contrasted
 Confederation  Unitary Systems

3.1

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FIGURE 3.1: Types of Political Systems

3.1

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Comparing American Federalism
 Historical Origins of American Federalism

3.1

 Role of Size and Diversity

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3.1 When is a federal system of government
most likely to be employed?
a. When the population is homogeneous b. When the population is largely urban c. When the population is diverse

3.1

d. When the land area of the country is small

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3.1 When is a federal system of government
most likely to be employed?
a. When the population is homogeneous b. When the population is largely urban c. When the population is diverse

3.1

d. When the land area of the country is small

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Federalism in the Constitution
 Independent State Powers  States’ Roles in National Government  Relations Among the States

3.2

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Independent State Powers
 Supremacy Clause  Tenth Amendment
 Reservation Clause

3.2

 Concurrent Powers

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Figure 3.2: How Responsibilities Are Distributed in the Federal System

3.2

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States’ Roles in National Government
 Representation in Congress
 Electoral College

3.2

 Ratification and Amendment of Constitution

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But let me tell you, Mr. President

3.2

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Relations Among the States
 Horizontal Federalism
 “full faith and credit”
 DOMA

3.2

 Interstate Compact

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TABLE 3.1: Constitutional Underpinnings of Federalism

3.2

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Border Fence

3.2

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3.2 In designing a new system of
government, what were the states most concerned with?
a. Retaining considerable independence to manage their internal affairs

3.2

b. Retaining the right to coin their own currency
c. Retaining the right to engage in international relations d. Retaining the right to make interstate agreements
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3.2 In designing a new system of
government, what were the states most concerned with?
a. Retaining considerable independence to manage their internal affairs

3.2

b. Retaining the right to coin their own currency
c. Retaining the right to engage in international relations d. Retaining the right to make interstate agreements
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Video: In Context

3.2

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Evolution of American Federalism
 Perpetual Debate about the Nature of American Federalism  Federalism Before the Civil War  Civil War and the Expansion of National Power

3.3

 Expanded National Activity Since the Civil War
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Perpetual Debate About the Nature of American Federalism
 The Nationalist Position
 “Necessary and Proper” Clause

3.3

 States’ Rights Position
 Dual Federalism

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Federalism Before the Civil War
 Nullification

3.3

 Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
 Judicial Review

 McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
 National Supremacy

 Preemption

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FIGURE 3.3: Timeline: Landmarks in the History of U.S. Federalism

3.3

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The Civil War and the Expansion of National Power
 Civil War Amendments
 Thirteenth Amendment  Fourteenth Amendment
 Due Process Clause  Equal Protection Clause

3.3

 Fifteenth Amendment

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Our Bloody Civil War

3.3

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Expanded National Activity Since the Civil War
 Devolution

3.3

 National Power Reasserted
 Recent Pushback

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Guns For Sale

3.3

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Video: Thinking Like a Political Scientist

3.3

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Expanded National Activity Since the Civil War
 Changing American Federalism

3.3

 Cooperative Federalism

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3.3 How has American federalism changed
in the past two centuries?
a. It has remained largely as the framers planned. b. The states have grown in power and authority. c. The federal government has increased in power and authority.

3.3

d. Both the states and the federal government have increased in power and authority at equal levels.
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3.3 How has American federalism changed
in the past two centuries?
a. It has remained largely as the framers planned. b. The states have grown in power and authority. c. The federal government has increased in power and authority.

3.3

d. Both the states and the federal government have increased in power and authority at equal levels.
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Explore the Simulation: You Are a Federal Judge

3.3

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Fiscal Federalism
 Origin and Growth of Grants

3.4

 Types of Grants
 Debates About Federal Money and Control

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Origin and Growth of Grants
 Northwest Ordinance (1787)
 Government grants land for government buildings, schools, colleges in Northwest Territory  Land grants for roads, canals, railroads

3.4

 Post-War Spending Priorities
 Interstate highway system  Great Society

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Figure 3.4: Growth in Federal Grants-in-Aid to States 3.4 and Localities

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Types of Grants
 Categorical Grants
 Specify how money can be spent

3.4

 Block Grants
 Fewer rules on how money can be spent

 General Revenue Sharing
 Few or no strings attached

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Debates About Federal Money and Control
 Conditions on Aid
 Conditional grants

3.4

 Mandates
 Demands that states implement policies without federal aid

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Spewing Pollution

3.4

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Video: In the Real World

3.4

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Debates About Federal Money and Control
 Preemption
 Federal trumps states rules when there is a conflict

3.4

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3.4 Is the increase in federal grant money
flowing to the states a sign of expanded federal or state power?
a. State power, as states are able to persuade the federal government to give them money b. Federal power, as it shows that the federal government is more concerned about states’ citizens than the states themselves

3.4

c. State power, because the states control how this money is spent d. Federal power, because policy can be implemented in the states without new laws
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3.4 Is the increase in federal grant money
flowing to the states a sign of expanded federal or state power?
a. State power, as states are able to persuade the federal government to give them money b. Federal power, as it shows that the federal government is more concerned about states’ citizens than the states themselves

3.4

c. State power, because the states control how this money is spent d. Federal power, because policy can be implemented in the states without new laws
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Explore Federalism: Which States Win or Lose in the Federal Aid Game?

3.4

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U.S. Federalism: Pro and Con
 Pros

3.5

 Cons

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Pros
 Diversity of Needs

3.5

 Closeness to the People
 Innovation and Experimentation

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Cons
 Importance of National Standards

3.5

 Low Visibility and Lack of Popular Control
 Spillover Effects and Competition

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3.5 Which of the following is a factor in
favor of federalism?
a. Americans’ distrust of government makes a small, remote central government desirable. b. States can pass laws overturning federal legislation that they do not like. c. States can experiment with innovative policies that meet their specific needs. d. Americans can choose whether to vote in federal or state elections.
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3.5

3.5 Which of the following is a factor in
favor of federalism?
a. Americans’ distrust of government makes a small, remote central government desirable. b. States can pass laws overturning federal legislation that they do not like. c. States can experiment with innovative policies that meet their specific needs. d. Americans can choose whether to vote in federal or state elections.
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3.5

Discussion Question

3.5

What was the framers’ main motivation for developing a federal system of government? Why did they choose it over a unitary model?

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Video: So What?

3.5

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Further Review: On MyPoliSciLab
 Listen to the Chapter  Study and Review the Flashcards  Study and Review the Practice Tests

3

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