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The Structural Foundations of American Government and Politics

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Video: The Big Picture

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http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Greenberg_Ch04_The_Structural_ Foundations_Seg1_v2.html

Learning Objectives
Determine how the changing demography of the U.S. population has affected American politics Assess how the American economy shapes government and politics

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Learning Objectives

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Evaluate how America’s power in the world has changed and why it matters Analyze Americans’ political culture and its implications for government and politics

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Video: The Basics

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http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg2_PoliticalCulture_v2.html

America’s Population
 Growing  Becoming More Diverse

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 Moving West and South, and to the Suburbs  Growing Older

 Becoming More Unequal

Growing
 Growth Stats:
 10% growth 2000-2010  312 million in 2011  Third most populous, after China, India

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 Why growth?
 Unique among wealthy, developed countries  Higher birth rate  Immigration

Becoming More Diverse
 Immigration brings diversity
 Protestants, Catholics, Jews, Muslims  Northern, Eastern, Central, Southern Europe  Asia, Middle East, Latin America, Caribbean

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FIGURE 4.1 Immigration to the United States, by decade

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Becoming More Diverse
 Hispanics
    Largest minority – 16.3% Growing most rapidly African Americans second – 11% Illegal immigration controversial

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TABLE 4.1 Race and ethnicity in the United States

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Moving West and South, and to the Suburbs
 Sun Belt migration

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FIGURE 4.2: Center of American population

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Moving West and South, and to the Suburbs
 Sun Belt migration

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Growing Older
 Population aging
    Median age 1800 = 16 Median age 2011 = 35 Population over 65 growing Aging more slowly than other developed nations due to immigration

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 Political implications
 Over-65s have voting power  Social Security and Medicare

Becoming More Unequal
 Income
 High GDP does not equal prosperity for all  Median household income stagnant  Great Recession of 2007-onward
 Minorities hit hardest  Political implications  Dissatisfaction with incumbents

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 Poverty
 16% live below poverty line (49 million)  Poverty is not random  Women, minorities poorest

Video: In the Real World

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http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg5_PoliticalCulture_v2.html

Becoming More Unequal
 Inequality
     Highest in U.S. Increased in last three decades 20% take home 50% of income 1% take home 25% of income CEOs earn 243X workers’ salary

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 Big bonuses

 Rich suffered least in recession

FIGURE 4.3: Median Household income and the GDP (in constant dollars), 1967-2010

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FIGURE 4.4: Household income distribution in the United States, by quintiles, 1970 and 2010

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Becoming More Unequal
 A troubled middle class
 By income  By occupation  By lifestyle

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4.1 Income inequality in the U.S.
a. is declining. b. is increasing. c. has been unaffected by the recession. d. is unaffected by demographics such as race.

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4.1 Income inequality in the U.S.
a. is declining. b. is increasing. c. has been unaffected by the recession. d. is unaffected by demographics such as race.

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America’s Economy
 Main Tendencies  Globalization and Hyper-Competition

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Main Tendencies
 Capitalist economic tendencies
     High productivity Prosperous, high standard of living Innovative Income inequalities Instability

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Globalization and HyperCompetition
 World War II – 1970s
 11 of 15 largest corporations American  Little competition  Unparalleled prosperity

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 1970s – present
     Globalization Intense competition Digital revolution Transportation improvements Free trade agreements

Globalization

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4.2 What is a result of globalization?
a. Competition among companies has increased. b. Companies must pay higher wages to attract talented workers. c. Companies must provide health benefits. d. Competition has lessened domestically.

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4.2 What is a result of globalization?
a. Competition among companies has increased. b. Companies must pay higher wages to attract talented workers. c. Companies must provide health benefits. d. Competition has lessened domestically.

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Explore Political Culture: Can You Get Ahead in America?

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http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_greenberg_mpsl sfd_11/pex/pex9.html

America in the World
 Dominance since WWII
    Diplomatic Cultural Military Economic

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 Fall of USSR, rise of China  War on terror

4.3 The United States has been dominant
in world affairs in which areas?
a. Economic b. Military

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c. Diplomatic
d. All of the above

4.3 The United States has been dominant
in world affairs in which areas?
a. Economic b. Military

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c. Diplomatic
d. All of the above

Video: Thinking Like a Political Scientist

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http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg4_PoliticalCulture_v2.html

America’s Political Culture
 Individualism  Distrust of Government  Belief in Democracy and Freedom  Populist

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 Religious

Video: In Context

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http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg3_PoliticalCulture_v2.html

Individualism
 Inalienable rights
 Individual rights take priority  Purpose of government to protect them  Personal ambition/get what you deserve

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 Equality of opportunity versus equality of outcomes

FIGURE 4.5: Individualism

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Distrust of Government

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 Republican constitutional system built on it  Ideological conservatives/operational liberals  Big government worries
 Unique to America

All for One, One for All

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Belief in Democracy and Freedom
 Democracy
 Limited democratic roots  Franchise expanded  Abolish Electoral College

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 Freedom
 Most important belief  Immigrants seeking it

Populism
 What is populism?
 Hostility to power and powerful

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 Populist agenda
 Targets change throughout history  Candidates posing as ordinary people

Religion
 Religiosity highest in developed world
 Important in political campaigns  Baffling to foreign observers

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 Religion affects political agenda
 Determines campaign issues  Predictor of party affiliation

FIGURE 4.6: Religious Commitment

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Praying before Doing Battle

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4.4 What is Americans’ most important
political value?
a. Equality b. Religiosity c. Liberty d. Democracy

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4.4 What is Americans’ most important
political value?
a. Equality b. Religiosity c. Liberty d. Democracy

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Explore the Simulation: You Are a City Council Member

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http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_longman_media _1/2013_mpsl_sim/simulation.html?simulaURL=4

Discussion Question
What are America’s key political values? How is American political culture different from that of other rich democracies?

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Video: So What?

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http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDIA _1/polisci/presidency/Greenberg_Ch04_The_Structural_Foun dations_Seg6_v2.html

Further Review: On MyPoliSciLab
 Listen to the Chapter  Study and Review the Flashcards  Study and Review the Practice Tests

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