PRACTICING HYDROLOGY AN OVERVIEW

A.K. Lohani Scientist F National Institute of Hydrology Roorkee aklnih@gmail.com

HYDROLOGY
• The break-up of the word hydrology is : "hydro" and
"logy". "Hydro" means water and "logy" means science.

Definition

• Hydrology is the science that treats the waters of the
Earth, their occurrence, circulation and distribution, their chemical and biological properties and their reaction with their environment, including their relation to living things. The domain of hydrology embraces the full life history of water on the Earth.

Hydrological Cycle The cycle may be divided into three principal phases. (a) precipitation (b) evaporation and (c) runoff-surface and ground water.

movement and distribution. their chemical and biological properties and their reaction with their environment.The domain of hydrology embraces the full life history of water on the earth. their occurrence.HYDROLOGIC CYCLE Hydrology is the science that treats the water of the Earth. . including their relation to living things. circulation.

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BASE FLOW NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HYDROLOGY ROORKEE .HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE * PRECIPITATION PHASE .INTER FLOW .CHANNEL FLOW .SNOW * RUNOFF PHASE .RAIN .OVERLAND FLOW .

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE [Contd….] * EVAPORATION PHASE FROM INTERCEPTION STORAGE FROM WATER BODIES FROM UNSATURATED ZONE FROM SATURATED ZONE TRANSPIRATION THROUGH PLANTS .

HYDROLOGIC PROCESSES AND THEIR INTERACTION >INTERCEPTION >INFILTRATION >OVERLAND FLOW >FLOW FROM DEPRESSION STORAGES >CHANNEL FLOW >FLOW THROUGH UZ AND SOIL MOISTURE >FLOW THROUGH SZ AND WATER TABLE >INTERACTION OF OVERLAND FLOW AND UZ >INTERACTION OF CHANNEL FLOW AND SZ >INTERACTION OF UZ AND SZ .

Global scale .

Catchment Scale .

Human Influence on Hydrologic Cycle (a) Effects of agricultural changes (b) Effects of urbanisation (c) Effects of forest activities (d) Effects of highway development (e) Effects of mining (f) Effects of structural changes .

Human Influence on Hydrologic Cycle… • Space-Time Scales in Hydrology • Water Resources Assessment • Various phases must be considered with the catchment. and (iv) Sub-surface . These have been classified as the phases of : (i) Land surfaces. (ii) River channel networks. (iii) Reservoirs.

SPACE-TIME SCALES IN HYDROLOGY TIME SCALES * HOURLY * DAILY * WEEKLY * TEN DAILY * MONTHLY * SEASONAL * ANNUAL .

HYDROLOGIC BUDGET INFLOW SYSTEM OUTFLOW DRAINAGE BASIN AS A BLACK BOX SYSTEM .

HYDROLOGIC BUDGET I(t) S (t )  I (t )  Q(t ) t S(t) S S(t) Q(t) DRAINAGE BASIN AS A RESERVOIR .

Outflow from the system = Change in storage in the system The various components of the above continuity equation can be represented in equation form as: P + Input = Q + ET + Export + Sm + Sg + Sd + L P + (Ic + Ig) = Q +ET +(Oc + Og) + Sm + Sg + Sd + L where.WATER BALANCE Hydrological Water Balance The equation is based on the concept of continuity as follows: Input to the system . canals and drainage from outside the basin Ig = inflow to the groundwater from other basins Q = runoff ET = evaporation and evapotranspiration Oc = surface supplies going out to other basins Og = ground water outflow from the basin to other basins Sm = change in soil moisture Sg = change in ground water storage Sd = change in depression storage L = loss through deep percolation . P = precipitation Ic = surface supplies through rivers.

Ground Water Balance Considering the various sources of recharge and charge to the ground water reservoir and change in storage in the ground water. canals. etc. Rr = natural recharge from precipitation Rc = recharge due to seepage from rivers. RI = recharge from irrigation and other activities Is = influent seepage Tp = withdrawal from groundwater storage ET = evaporation and evapotranspiration from ground water Es = effluent seepage . reservoirs. ponds. the basic equation of ground water balance based on the concept of continuity can be written as: Rr + Rc + RI + Ig + Is = Tp + Og + ET + Es + Sg + L where. water courses.

the water use balance equation can be written for irrigated areas. E' = evaporation from irrigated crops Cc = canal supplies T'p = supply from groundwater storage for irrigation IT = irrigation supplies from drains and tanks Mg = contribution from groundwater irrigated fields Lc = losses from canals and water courses LI = losses from irrigation fields . Considering the various sources of supply to and losses from the root zone of crops and vegetation and the change in the soil moisture of the root zone. unirrigated areas and for water bodies as follows: For irrigated crops: E' = Cc + T'p + IT + PE + Mg .LI where.Lc .Water Use Balance Water use for the growth of crops and other vegetation comes from their root zone.

water courses. trees and unirrigated fields For water bodies E = Er + Ec + Ew where. Ew = evaporation from other water bodies It may be noted that ET = E' + E" + E . etc. unirrigated crops and natural land P'E = effective precipitation for vegetation and unirrigated fields Mg = contribution from ground water for forests. Ec = evaporation from canals. E = evaporation from water surface Er = evaporation from surfaces in rivers. etc. drains.For unirrigated crops E" = P'E + M'g + E'T where E" = evapotranspiration from vegetation.

HYDROLOGIC MODELLING * IDENTIFICATION OF THE HYDROLOGICAL PROBLEMS * DATA AVAILABLIITY * DATA COLLECTION * DATA PROCESSING .PRELIMINARY PROCESSING .SECONDARY PROCESSING * INVENTORY FOR THE STUDY AREA * IDENTIFICATION OF MODEL STRUCTURE * USE OF AN EXISTING MODEL (OR DEVELOP A NEW MODEL) * MODEL CALIBRATION * MODEL VALIDATION * MODEL APPLICATION .

DATA REQUIREMENT PHYSICAL DATA * SOIL AND LAND USE MAPS * FLOOD MAPS * SNOW MAPS * EROSION MAPS * PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS & SOIL DEPTHS * PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CROPS & PLANTS * GEOMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS * RIVER CROSS SECTIONS AND L-SECTIONS * AQUIFER CHARACTERISTICS .

RAINFALL DATA .WATER LEVEL AND STREAM FLOW DATA .PUMPING DATA .DATA REQUIREMENT (CONTD…) * HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL TIME SERIES .OTHER CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA * HYDROLOGICAL TIME SERIES DATA .GROUND WATER LEVEL DATA .SOIL MOISTURE DATA * UTILISATION DATA .RESERVOIR OPERATION DATA .PAN-EVAPORATION DATA .

HYDROLOGICAL MODEL CALIBRATION * TRIAL AND ERROR METHOD * AUTOMATIC OPTIMISATION TECHNIQUE * COMBINATION OF ‘TRIAL & ERROR’ & ‘AUTOMATIC OPTIMISATION TECHNIQUE’ .

HYDROLOGICAL MODEL VALIDATION * VISUAL OBSERVATION OF OBSERVED OUTPUT AND MODEL OUTPUT PLOTS * EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE CRITERIA .

UNCERTAINTIES IN HYDROLOGICAL MODELLING * UNCERTAINTIES IN INPUT * UNCERTAINTIES IN MODEL STRUCTURE * UNCERTAINTIES IN MODEL PARAMETERS * UNCERTAINTIES IN OUTPUT .

) .BLACK BOX MODEL .CONCEPTUAL MODEL # LUMPED # DISTRIBUTED .PHYSICALLY BASED DISTRIBUTED MODELS * STOCHASTIC AND STATISTICAL MODELS * OPTIMISATION MODEL (LP. Etc.HYDROLOGICAL MODELS * DETERMINISTIC MODELS . DP.

REGIONAL HYDROLOGY * IDENTIFICATION OF REGION * TESTING OF REGIONAL HOMOGENEITY * EVALUATION OF HYDROLOGICAL VARIABLES FOR THE GAUGED CATCHMENTS OF THE REGION * EVALUATION OF PHYSIOGRAPHIC AND GEOMORPHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF GAUGED CATCHMENTS * DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL RELATIONSHIP * EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR UNGAUGED CATCHMENT * EVALUATION OF HYDROLOGICAL VARIABLES USING REGIONAL RELATIONSHIP FOR UNGAUGED CATCHMENTS .

hydrologists come across are: (i) Data management .Hydrologic instrumentation & measurements .HYDROLOGICAL PROBLEMS Some of the important problems of applied hydrology.Data processing .Data storage and retrieval .Data generation (ii) Hydrologic Design (iii) Hydrologic System Operation (iv) Flood and its management (v) Drought and its management (vi) Waterlogging and drainage (vii) Urban drainage (viii) Water quality and environment .Data collection network .

(ix) (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii) Conjunctive uses of surface and ground water Salinity Salt water intrusion Coastal drainage Over exploitation of ground water (Ground water management) (xiv) Soil Erosion (xv) Reservoir Sedimentation (xvi) Global Warming and Climate Change (xvii) Glacier. snow and ice melt (xviii) Crop water requirements & Irrigation Scheduling (xix) Impacts of watershed developments & land use changes (xx) Hydrological problems of Lakes and Tanks (xxi) Water Resources Assessment .

APPLICATIONS OF HYDROLOGY • • • • • • • • Flood Control Drought Mitigation Water Supply Pollution Control Urban Development Industrial Development Design of Hydraulic works Agricultural Production .

• Energy Resources Development • Land Conservation • Environmental-Impact Assessment • Land use Change • Forest and Wildlife Management • Military Operations • Rural Development • Navigation • Recreation • Fisheries .

CONCLUDING REMARKS * COMPUTERISATION OF THE TIME SERIES DATA * REGULAR PROCESSING OF THE TIME SERIES DATA * DATA STORAGE & RETRIEVAL FOR THE PROCESSED DATA * APPLICATION OF GIS AND REMOTE SENSING FOR PROVIDING HYDROLOGICAL MAPS IN DIGITAL FORM * INTERFACING OF SPATIAL DATA BASE WITH TIME SERIES DATA BASE * INTERFACING OF SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DATA BASES WITH HYDROLOGICAL MODELS .

Thank You !! .