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OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode)

Submitted by :

Udbhav Maheshwari

CONTENT
Introduction Generation History Advantages Disadvantages Working & Architecture Types Current Research Application Future Use

What is an OLED?
OLED - Organic Light Emitting Diode An OLED is any light emitting diode (LED) which emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of a film of organic compounds.

GENERATION

LCD LED
PLASMA CRT

OLED

History of OLEDs
First developed in the early 1950s in France In 1987 Chin Tang and Van Slyke introduced the first light emitting diodes from thin organic layers. In 1990 electroluminescence in polymers was discovered.

Advantages of OLEDs
Much faster response time

Consume significantly less energy


Wider viewing angles Thinner display Better contrast ratio Safer for the environment

Disadvantages of OLEDs
Cost to manufacture is high Constraints with lifespan Easily damaged by water Limited market availability

CRT Working

Plasma and LCD Working

LED Working

Architecture of OLEDs
Substrate (clear plastic, glass, foil) - supports the OLED. Anode (transparent) - removes electrons Organic layer: o Conducting layer :- transport "holes" from the anode. ( polyaniline ).
o

Emissive layer :- transport electrons from the cathode; this is where light is made. (polyfluorene. )

Cathode - injects electrons.

Working of OLEDs

Types of OLEDs
PMOLEDs The organic layer is between strips of cathode and anode that run perpendicular The intersections form the pixels Easy to make Use more power Best for small screens AMOLEDs Full layers of cathode and anode Anode over lays a thin film transistor (TFT) Requires less power Higher refresh rates Suitable for large screens

Current Research for OLEDs


Manufacturers focusing on finding a cheap way to produce o "Roll-to-Roll" Manufacturing Increasing efficiency of blue luminance

Boosting overall lifespan

Applications of OLEDs
TVs Cell Phone screens Computer Screens Keyboards (Optimus Maximus) Lights Portable Divice displays

OLEDs as a Light Source

OLED Televisions
Sony
Released XEL-1 in February 2009. First OLED TV sold in stores. 11'' screen, 3mm thin $2,500 MSRP Weighs approximately 1.9 kg Wide 178 degree viewing angle 1,000,000:1 Contrast ratio

Future Uses for OLED


Lighting Flexible / bendable lighting Wallpaper lighting defining new ways to light a space Transparent lighting doubles as a window

Cell Phones Nokia 888

Future Uses for OLED


Transparent Car Navigation System on Windshield Using Samsungs' transparent OLED technology Heads up display GPS system Scroll Laptop Nokia concept OLED Laptop

References
http://impnerd.com/the-history-and-future-of-oled http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_light-emitting_diode http://www.oled-research.com/oleds/oleds-history.html http://www.voidspace.org.uk/technology/top_ten_phone_techs.sht ml#keep-your-eye-on-flexible-displays-coming-soon http://www.pocketlint.com/news/news.phtml/23150/24174/samsung-say-oled-notready.phtml http://www.cepro.com/article/study_future_bright_for_oled_lighti ng_market/ http://www.technologyreview.com/energy/21116/page1/ http://optics.org/cws/article/industry/37032 http://jalopnik.com/5154953/samsung-transparent-oled-displaypitched-as-automotive-hud http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/oled.htm