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Wind Waves

Tsunami
Water Wave Parameters
Wavelength
Depth
Amplitude
Wind Waves parameters
m 200 10 ~
km H 4 ~
H A << <
m A 10 1 . 0 ~ 2
Wavelength
Depth
Amplitude
Wind wave parameters in the open ocean
Tsunami Parameters
km 200 ~
km H 4 ~
<< << H A
m cm A 1 1 ~ 2
Wavelength
Depth
Amplitude
Tsunami parameters in the open ocean
Its All in the
Wavelength
Shallow Vs. Deep Water Waves
) (
2
kH Tanh gk = e
gk =
2
e
2 2
k gH = e
1 << kH 1 >> kH
Stages of a tsunami
First stage: tsunami generation.

Second stage: tsunami
propagation.

Third stage: tsunami run-up on
the coast.
Tsunami Formation
Seismic tsunami formation
Seismic tsunami formation
Seismic tsunami formation
Tsunami propagation
The tsunami propagates at
Propagation is linear and without dispersion
or dissipation.
Variations in ocean depth change the path
of the tsunami.
At H=4000m v=200 m/s
At H=40m v=20 m/s
gH v =
Tsunami propagation
Tsunami propagation examples
Tsunami propagation examples
Chile
22 May 1960
~19:00 GMT
Japan
23 May 1960
~17:00 GMT
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0yha559FvaY&feature=fvwrel



Tsunami propagation examples
Tsunami propagation examples
Run-up on the shore
General concept:
The total wave energy is twice the potential energy and it
is conserved:



So:




const A H g dt gH g dx g E
T
= = = =
} }
2 2 / 1 2 / 3
0
2
0
2
2 / 1

4 / 1
H A
Run-up on the shore
Three types of run-ups:
1. Spilling-
The crest of the wave breaks,
foam flows down its frontal
slope.
Peculiar to gently sloping
bottoms.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IuUygn7BZis
Run-up on the shore
Three types of run-ups:
2. Surging
Wave floods coast without
breaking.
Peculiar to steep slopes.
http://www.youtube.com/watch#!v=Gbq412haY1c
Run-up on the shore
Three types of run-ups:
3. Plunging-
The crest of the wave surpasses
its foot and curls down.
Peculiar to inclined bottom
slopes.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=68CLqn28_bY
Tsunami detection
Coastal measurement: eye witnesses
Tsunami detection
Coastal measurement
(mareographs)
Tsunami detection
Coastal measurement : geomorphological evidence
Tsunami detection
Deep-water measurement:
Buoy stations
Tsunami detection
Deep-water measurement:
Seafloor observatories
Summary
Tsunamis are characterized by their long
wavelength.
In the open sea tsunamis are linear waves.
Changes in the sea bed change the tsunami path.
The tsunami becomes slower and larger when
hitting the shore.
Detecting the tsunami at the open sea is an
experimental challenge.
A final word of advice
was the premise put forward clearly and in an attractive way?

were the goals reached?

was the talk clear?

was the presentation style interesting?

what was the quality of the slides?

did the talk fit in its time limits?

are we going to remember some of it (later)?
Ray Method
The ray method can be used to predict the path of the
tsunami:
k r v r

) (

= ) (r v k k

V =
Tsunami detection
Deep-water measurement:
Satellite altimetry
Tsunami propagation limiting processes
Non-lineraity:
At first approximation if we want to take into account
non-linearity we get:
so the characteristic scale on which non-linear effects
will show will be:

since A<<H then and then for typical
tsunami values L
cn
exceeds the length of the earths
equator by an order of magnitude.

Tsunami propagation limiting processes
Dispersion:
The full gravity wave dispersion relation is:


thus:

so the characteristic length for dispersion is
Tsunami propagation limiting processes
Tsunami propagation limiting processes
Damping:
Linear damping due to energy damping within the
thin bottom layer can be estimated to be
so the characteristic length the wave travels is

Energy loss related to non-linear damping due to
turbulence can be estimated by giving a
characteristic length
Tsunami propagation limiting processes
Damping:

Seismic tsunami formation
Seismic tsunami formation-
relevant time scales
- the time interval in which the ground deformation occurs at
a point in space.
T
hd
half of the time interval in which the ground deformation
occurs over the whole source.

0
=(H/g)
1/2
the propagation time of a long gravitational wave
over the ocean depth (
0
20 s for H=4 km)
T
0
=4H/c
S
is the maximum period of normal elastic oscillations
of a water layer.
For a source of length R
TS
:
T
TS
=R
TS
(gH)
-1/2
is the propagation time of long gravitational
waves across the source. This determines the period of the actual
tsunami.
T
S
=R
TS
/c
S
is the propagation time of a hydroacoustic wave
across the source.
Seismic tsunami formation-
relevant time scales
Run-up on the shore simple model
A simple 1D model:
Run-up on the shore simple model
We write down the NS and the continuity eqs:




We go to dimensionless parameters:

Run-up on the shore simple model
We get dimensionless equations:




The dimensionless parameter
determines the dynamics with transition to wave
breaking at

Seismic tsunami formation- a simple
mathematical model
Assuming water to be an ideal incompressible liquid
and the initial depth H to be constant. We can obtain
the following equations for the small deformation:
The liquid surface deformation
The basin surface deformation
Their solution is:
with
Seismic tsunami formation- a simple
mathematical model
Seismic tsunami formation
Bibliography
Physics of Tsunamis, Levin B. & Nosov M., Springer
(2009)
JAMSTEC website.
USGS NEIC website.
Global tectonics and space geodesy, Gordon R.G &
Stein S, Science 256, 5055 (1992)