Physics of tsunamis presentation.

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Physics of tsunamis presentation.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Tsunami

Water Wave Parameters

Wavelength

Depth

Amplitude

Wind Waves parameters

m 200 10 ~

km H 4 ~

H A << <

m A 10 1 . 0 ~ 2

Wavelength

Depth

Amplitude

Wind wave parameters in the open ocean

Tsunami Parameters

km 200 ~

km H 4 ~

<< << H A

m cm A 1 1 ~ 2

Wavelength

Depth

Amplitude

Tsunami parameters in the open ocean

Its All in the

Wavelength

Shallow Vs. Deep Water Waves

) (

2

kH Tanh gk = e

gk =

2

e

2 2

k gH = e

1 << kH 1 >> kH

Stages of a tsunami

First stage: tsunami generation.

Second stage: tsunami

propagation.

Third stage: tsunami run-up on

the coast.

Tsunami Formation

Seismic tsunami formation

Seismic tsunami formation

Seismic tsunami formation

Tsunami propagation

The tsunami propagates at

Propagation is linear and without dispersion

or dissipation.

Variations in ocean depth change the path

of the tsunami.

At H=4000m v=200 m/s

At H=40m v=20 m/s

gH v =

Tsunami propagation

Tsunami propagation examples

Tsunami propagation examples

Chile

22 May 1960

~19:00 GMT

Japan

23 May 1960

~17:00 GMT

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0yha559FvaY&feature=fvwrel

Tsunami propagation examples

Tsunami propagation examples

Run-up on the shore

General concept:

The total wave energy is twice the potential energy and it

is conserved:

So:

const A H g dt gH g dx g E

T

= = = =

} }

2 2 / 1 2 / 3

0

2

0

2

2 / 1

4 / 1

H A

Run-up on the shore

Three types of run-ups:

1. Spilling-

The crest of the wave breaks,

foam flows down its frontal

slope.

Peculiar to gently sloping

bottoms.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IuUygn7BZis

Run-up on the shore

Three types of run-ups:

2. Surging

Wave floods coast without

breaking.

Peculiar to steep slopes.

http://www.youtube.com/watch#!v=Gbq412haY1c

Run-up on the shore

Three types of run-ups:

3. Plunging-

The crest of the wave surpasses

its foot and curls down.

Peculiar to inclined bottom

slopes.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=68CLqn28_bY

Tsunami detection

Coastal measurement: eye witnesses

Tsunami detection

Coastal measurement

(mareographs)

Tsunami detection

Coastal measurement : geomorphological evidence

Tsunami detection

Deep-water measurement:

Buoy stations

Tsunami detection

Deep-water measurement:

Seafloor observatories

Summary

Tsunamis are characterized by their long

wavelength.

In the open sea tsunamis are linear waves.

Changes in the sea bed change the tsunami path.

The tsunami becomes slower and larger when

hitting the shore.

Detecting the tsunami at the open sea is an

experimental challenge.

A final word of advice

was the premise put forward clearly and in an attractive way?

were the goals reached?

was the talk clear?

was the presentation style interesting?

what was the quality of the slides?

did the talk fit in its time limits?

are we going to remember some of it (later)?

Ray Method

The ray method can be used to predict the path of the

tsunami:

k r v r

) (

= ) (r v k k

V =

Tsunami detection

Deep-water measurement:

Satellite altimetry

Tsunami propagation limiting processes

Non-lineraity:

At first approximation if we want to take into account

non-linearity we get:

so the characteristic scale on which non-linear effects

will show will be:

since A<<H then and then for typical

tsunami values L

cn

exceeds the length of the earths

equator by an order of magnitude.

Tsunami propagation limiting processes

Dispersion:

The full gravity wave dispersion relation is:

thus:

so the characteristic length for dispersion is

Tsunami propagation limiting processes

Tsunami propagation limiting processes

Damping:

Linear damping due to energy damping within the

thin bottom layer can be estimated to be

so the characteristic length the wave travels is

Energy loss related to non-linear damping due to

turbulence can be estimated by giving a

characteristic length

Tsunami propagation limiting processes

Damping:

Seismic tsunami formation

Seismic tsunami formation-

relevant time scales

- the time interval in which the ground deformation occurs at

a point in space.

T

hd

half of the time interval in which the ground deformation

occurs over the whole source.

0

=(H/g)

1/2

the propagation time of a long gravitational wave

over the ocean depth (

0

20 s for H=4 km)

T

0

=4H/c

S

is the maximum period of normal elastic oscillations

of a water layer.

For a source of length R

TS

:

T

TS

=R

TS

(gH)

-1/2

is the propagation time of long gravitational

waves across the source. This determines the period of the actual

tsunami.

T

S

=R

TS

/c

S

is the propagation time of a hydroacoustic wave

across the source.

Seismic tsunami formation-

relevant time scales

Run-up on the shore simple model

A simple 1D model:

Run-up on the shore simple model

We write down the NS and the continuity eqs:

We go to dimensionless parameters:

Run-up on the shore simple model

We get dimensionless equations:

The dimensionless parameter

determines the dynamics with transition to wave

breaking at

Seismic tsunami formation- a simple

mathematical model

Assuming water to be an ideal incompressible liquid

and the initial depth H to be constant. We can obtain

the following equations for the small deformation:

The liquid surface deformation

The basin surface deformation

Their solution is:

with

Seismic tsunami formation- a simple

mathematical model

Seismic tsunami formation

Bibliography

Physics of Tsunamis, Levin B. & Nosov M., Springer

(2009)

JAMSTEC website.

USGS NEIC website.

Global tectonics and space geodesy, Gordon R.G &

Stein S, Science 256, 5055 (1992)

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