Presentation on Couplings

Presented by H.L.Gadiyar 2.10.2007

Couplings

A coupling is a device used to connect two shafts together at their ends for the purpose of transmitting power. Shaft couplings are used in machinery for several purposes, the most common of which are the following: To provide for the connection of shafts of units that are manufactured separately such as a motor and generator and to provide for disconnection for repairs or alternations. To provide for misalignment of the shafts or to introduce mechanical flexibility. To reduce the transmission of shock loads from one shaft to another. To introduce protection against overloads. To alter the vibration characteristics of rotating units.


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Major Manufacturers
• John Crane-(formerly known as Flexibox)All pumps • Love-Joy-Small size pumps, AOP,MOP • Thomas-Sundyne • Koplex-Compressor • RENK • Eagle • Bendix

• Hub: A hub is that part of a flexible coupling which is machined for mounting on a shaft. Hub bores may be cylindrical or tapered. • Hub Bores: Bores are cylindrical or conical holes in hubs of couplings with axes coincident with the rotational axis of the coupling. For integral flanges. this measurement shall be from the mating face. axial displacement and speed • Distance Between Shaft Ends (DBSE): The distance between shaft ends is defined as the distance from the face of one shaft (including any thread end) to the face of the next shaft. • Coupling Rating: Coupling rating is a torque capacity at rated misalignment.Glossary related to couplings • Backlash: is the circumferential clearance in the flexible element (s) that is necessary to provide angular misalignment capability and assembly. • Nominal bore: The nominal bore is a commonly used term to identify the basic bore size without tolerance. .

or any combination thereof. speed.S. etc.. Service factor: Service factor or Application Factor is a factor to account for unusual and occasional loading due to the operating conditions /application of the coupling. material unknowns. manufacturing tolerances. analytical assumptions in stress analysis. angular.S.): factor of safety is used to cover uncertainties in a coupling design. Below this limit the material can be expected to have infinite life (or a factor of safety greater than 1) Factor of safety (F.Contd…. Misaligned Shaft: Misaligned shafts can be parallel offset. axial. Beyond this limit the material can be expected to fail after some finite number of cyclic loads. Under given design conditions the F. • • • • . misalignment and axial displacement. • Rated Speed: Rated speed is the maximum speed at which the coupling is capable of transmitting the coupling continuous rated torque while simultaneously subjected to the rated angular misalignment and the coupling rated axial displacement Endurance limit: is the fatigue limit of a coupling component subjected to combined constant and alternating stresses. where the stress is a function of torque. is the ratio of strength (or stress capacity) to actual predicted stress.

Flexible Couplings • Rigid Couplings : The rigid coupling consists of simple hollow cylinders having internal diameters of the proper size to fit over the shaft ends being joined. the shafts are attached to the coupling by setscrews. Any misalignment will affect the life and the performance of the coupling.Type of couplings • Couplings can be broadly classified in to two main classes: 1. Rigid couplings 2. . For light applications. • Flexible Couplings: are designed to transmit torque while permitting some radial and axial and angular misalignment. The coupling length depends on the desired shaft gap between ends. Rigid coupling do not accommodate for misalignment. Flexible couplings can accommodate angular misalignment up to a few degrees and some parallel misalignment.

Clamp or split-muff or compression coupling 3. Sleeve or muff coupling 2.Rigid Couplings • Rigid couplings are basically of 3 types: 1. Flanged Coupling .

Flanged Couplings .

General purpose couplings 2.Flexible couplings Flexible couplings have been classified into two categories: 1. Special purpose couplings .

2. They are connected to machines that operate below their first lateral critical speed Following Criteria need to be defined: Maximum continuous power (HP horsepower) Speed (rpm) Peak Torque Distance between shaft ends Driver shaft diameter Driven shaft diameter Maximum axial displacement Maximum parallel shaft offset/angular alignment These couplings are covered by following standards: API 610: Centrifugal pumps for Petroleum. heavy duty chemical and gas industry. . ISO 14691: Petroleum and Natural Gas Industriesgeneral purpose couplings • 1.General purpose couplings • • These couplings operated to a maximum speed of 4000 rpm and a power rating of 750KW.

Special purpose couplings • These are engineered couplings used in applications generally not by general purpose couplings • Criteria such as: Environmental conditions of temperature. Corrosive/hazardous atmosphere. Potential excitations of critical frequencies. • These are covered by followings standards: API 671-Special purpose coupling for Petroleum. Type of bearings and lube oil supply have to be taken into consideration while selecting a special purpose couplings. chemical and gas industry services ISO 10441-petroleum and natural gas industries-flexible couplings for mechanical power transmission-special purpose applications . Expected misalignment conditions. Special balance requirements.

chain-steel/nylon c. Straight. as general purpose couplings Mechanical element couplings a. .Types of General purpose couplings • 1. 3. do-nut Shear type: Urethane type. Scalloped. block.Circular. The following types are included. gear-straight/crowned tooth b. Link 2. Donut Metallic Element Couplings: a. Disc type. chorded type. pin-bush. universal joints Elastomeric element couplings: Compression type: jaw.

Diaphragm type: tapered. Block type Metallic Element Couplings a. The following types are included as special purpose couplings Mechanical element Couplings a. High performance gear type Elastomeric element Coupling a. multiple straight. 2. Disc type b.Types of Special purpose couplings • 1. 3. . multiple convoluted. one piece.

5. For proper selection the following data should be obtained: Maximum continuous power (HP horsepower) Speed (rpm) Peak Torque Distance between shaft ends Driver shaft diameter Driven shaft diameter Maximum axial displacement Maximum parallel shaft offset/angular alignment 2. . 4. Calculate minimum coupling rating using appropriate application factor.5) Minimum coupling rating = ( KW*F/ N) 3. Check that the hub bore capacity is suitable and speed capability. Select a coupling from vendors catalogue with same /higher rating. Specify DBSE. (min 1.Selection Procedure 1.

00 . etc) 2.50 . etc) 1. Screw Compressors.Constant Torque 1.00 (Centrifugal Compressors.Moderate torque Fluctuations (Fans. motors): . Feed Pumps. Heavy duty fans and blowers 2.Service factor ( F ) • For smooth power driving machines ( steam/gas turbines.Substantial Fluctuations (Reciprocating Pumps. Heavy duty fans and blowers 2.Substantial Fluctuations (Reciprocating Pumps.00  For power driving machines like ( Steam engine/ water turbines): . Screw Compressors. Feed Pumps. etc) .Constant Torque 1.Moderate torque Fluctuations (Fans. etc) .50 (Centrifugal Compressors.50 .

3 x 150/ 2960 = 65. • R= 1000 x 1. standard hub bore = 65mm large hub bore up to = 90 mm Note : While Capacity up-gradation care should be taken to ensure correct rate of coupling is used. . Calculate the coupling rating – Suggested coupling M/s John crane make.Example • 150 KW electric motor is to be coupled to a centrifugal pump at 2960 rpm.87 KW per 1000 rpm Therefore selection can be TSKS-0075 –refer standard table.

Coupling designation
• All vendors have a unique system of designating couplings providing a unique code for ordering purposes. Thus coupling designation is highly proprietary. • For example let us consider the 16 digit coding system of JOHN CRANE couplings. MODO 0125 0177 0000
DBSE

Hub type and condition Hub type and condition Balance Correction Material of Construction
Coupling rating in KW/1000 rpm

Basic Coupling type

Coupling Designation (contd.)
• Basic coupling type: LS-4 Tangential link membrane TSK-6 6 Tangential link membrane TLP-8 8 Tangential link membrane TTH-10 10 Tangential link membrane MHS- Spoke form membrane MODO Spoke Form Membrane • Materials of construction: O- Standard Materials for coupling Range X- Spark Resistant Materials W-Special materials D- Materials for low temperature E- Materials for low temperature and spark resistant

Coupling Designation (Contd.)
• 012356Balance Correction: No Correction. Trans. Unit/Membrane Unit Corrected to Commercial Limits Transmission Unit Balance Spacer (M series). Transmission Unit and Hubs Corrected to Commercial Limits. Special Balance Requirements Balance to API 610 8th Edition.

• 0345678-

Hub Types and Condition: No Hub supplied Special Design Hub Adapter Standard Hub Unbored Large Hub Unbored Standard Hub Machined Large Hub Machined

Coupling Evaluation .

Disc type coupling .

Exploded view-disc type coupling .

Types of Membranes .

fans and machine tools. Medium-horsepower pumps. compressors. 2. 3. 5. Generators.Applications of Disc Type Couplings • The disk coupling is used in a variety of applications. • The most common is on: 1. 6. Marine drives. 4. Cooling tower drives. 7. .

Grid Coupling .

The two hubs are connected by a “serpent” style metallic grid (spring). • Grid couplings can accommodate 3 types of misalignments: • 1.Working phenomena • The basic metallic grid coupling (Fig. or contoured. Parallel misalignment: Movement of the grid in the lubricated grooves accommodates for parallel misalignment. which may be straight. Angular misalignment: The grid-groove design permits a rocking and sliding action of the lubricated grid and hubs. . 4) consists of two hubs that contain slots. tapered. • 2. • Metallic Grid couplings have been used successfully for more than 60 years.

) • End float: Unrestrained end float for both driving and driven members is permitted because the grid slides in the lubricated grooves.( Contd. • The amount of axial movement can also be limited. .

from centrifugal pumps to steel mill applications. • Some typical applications are: • Agitators • Machine Tools • Blower • Mixers • Compressors • Paper mills • Cranes • Pumps • Elevators • Fans • Generators • Textile industry .Applications of grid coupling • The metallic grid coupling has been applied to nearly all types of industrial applications.

Limited end float couplings .

however these couplings usually consist of a standard hub and a larger hub. A limited end float design is commonly used in couplings for sleeve-bearing motors. A limited-end float coupling is designed to limit the movement of the coupled shaft ends with respect to each other where one shaft has no thrust bearing for centering.Limited End float Couplings • The limited end float couplings are a modification of disc type couplings. • .

Fluid couplings .

where the cycle repeats.-Application examples are Conveyor train. The fluid leaving the centre of the turbine returns to the pump. impeller and turbine. applying torque to the turbine. often referred to as the pump or driving torus is rotated by the prime mover.Fluid couplings-working phenomena • A fluid coupling is a sealed chamber containing two similarly shaped toroids facing components. Here. which is typically an electric motor which churns the fluid. • Fluid couplings are widely used in industrial applications. • The moving fluid reaches the casing and the enclosed shape forces the flow in the direction of the driven impeller. the Coriolis force reaction transfers the angular fluid momentum outward and across. referred to as the turbine or driven torus. especially in machine drives that involve high inertia starts or constant cyclic loading. thus causing it to rotate in the same direction as the pump. immersed in fluid (usually oil ). . • The driving impeller.

Diaphragm couplings .

Multiple convoluted diaphragm coupling .

Tapered contoured diaphragm : This diaphragm shape is designed for constant shear stress from ID to OD. The tapered shape greatly increases the coupling‟s flexibility capabilities. Torque for these couplings is transmitted between the OD and ID. • 1. • All three shapes commonly used have some shape modification that helps to reduce their size and increase their flexibility. . usually with maximum thickness at the smaller diameter. The diaphragm elements can be of constant or variable thickness.Diaphragm coupling • This coupling obtains its flexibility from the free span between the diaphragm OD and ID.

(Contd. With thin diaphragms in parallel. but also has a convoluted shape.) • Multiple straight diaphragm: By using multiple thin plates rather than one thick plate the flexibility of this coupling is greatly increased compared to that of a single diaphragm. the stresses are usually lower. • Multiple convoluted diaphragm : This coupling incorporates all the flexibility of the earlier one. . which helps to increase its flexibility in the axial direction and provided linear axial stiffness. The diaphragm coupling is typically used in high-performance applications where a failure or downtime can be very costly.

Geared Coupling .

called the spindle. The single joint allows for minor misalignments such as installation errors and changes in shaft alignment due to operating conditions. The two joints are connected by a third shaft. The excess backlash can contribute to vibration. • Gear couplings have higher torque densities than universal joints designed to fit a given space while universal joints induce lower vibrations.Gear coupling-working phenomena • Gear coupling is a mechanical device for transmitting torque between two shafts that are not coaxial. • The gear teeth in a gear coupling have high backlash to allow for angular misalignment. or flexible coupling. . • The limit on torque density in universal joints is due to the limited cross sections of the cross and yoke. • Each joint consists of a 1:1 gear ratio internal/external gear pair. In this application the device is called a gear-type flexible. • Single joint gear couplings are also used to connected two nominally coaxial shafts.

Mining machinery. Hydraulic pumps. Mixers. Hoist. Blowers. Generators. Cranes. Compressors. Fans. Conveyors. particularly in high torque applications.Applications of Gear Coupling: Gear couplings are used on the following types of equipment: Centrifugal pumps. Steel mills and auxiliary equipment. and others. . Exciters.

If they exist. Preparation. Hub Installation • • • • • 1. such as seals. bolts. and holes of the mating flanges. Measure and inspect Bore dimensions. Diameter of bolt circle (DBC). sand). carriers. Coupling lengths. and on the gear couplings. • • • • • • • • Obtain the drawing of the coupling. clean and disassemble the components. Straight shafts Install the key(s) in the shaft keyway(s) Make sure that any part that will slide over the coupling hub is placed back on the shaft. the sleeves. file. remove (stone. Prior to assembling the coupling . Review and read the information Inspect the components to assure that all parts are in order. . Check to assure that there is clearance between the keys at the sides of coupling keyway and on top of the key Lock the hub in position ( usually with setscrew ). and covers. Push the hub onto the shaft until the face of the hub is flush with the ends of the shaft. Check for burrs and nicks on the mating surfaces. Keyways. B.Installation of couplings • A.

Straight shafts with Intermediate Bushings. otherwise. Once the hub is at the correct position.) • • In case of interference fit. Intermediate bushings come in two basic configuration: with and without flanges. the hubs must be heated before they slide onto the shaft. a torch or open flame should not be used. insert the bushings into the hub without tightening the screw or bolts. The hub should be heated in an oil bath or an oven. It is also important when mounting interference hubs to make sure that clearance exists over the top of keys. To assemble. when the hub cools.Installation (contd. • . tighten the screws on the shaft. the screw should be tightened gradually in a crisscross pattern to the specific torque. then slide the hub and bushing onto the shaft. This could cause localized distortion or softening of the hub material. Since the bushing is tapered. 2. it will rest on the key and produce high stresses in the hub that could cause it to fail.

The reason for this is that a hub advanced too far may not be removable and normally requires that the hubs be cut off. Using a depth gauge or dial indicator measure the initial reading. Install the hub on the shaft. . • Removal of the hub is usually easier on tapered shafts than on straight shafts. When using a heating method for mounting hubs. heat in oil or an oven. • Applications using tapered bores requires more attention that those using straight shafts because it is easier to machine two cylindrical surfaces that match than two tapered surfaces. The hub is installed and advanced the required amount. The following is recommended as a general procedure: • 1. • 2. to assure proper draw-up. Remove the hub and lubricate the bore of shaft if hydraulic assist is to be used.) 3. such as a clamp on the shaft. Taper bore couplings: • Tapered shafts have the advantage that the interference between the hub and the shaft can be accomplished by advancing the hub on the shaft. if not.Installation (contd. assuring that the parts mate properly and are burr-free and clean. • 3. it is best to provide a positive step.

the hub maybe installed onto the shaft without the O-rings and backup rings. • The O-rings and backup rings shall then be lubricated with hydraulic oil and installed onto the hub in the specified arrangement. • After a sufficient waiting period (typically 1-2 hours) the hydraulic oil is allowed to escape from the coupling interface. the hub may be installed onto the shaft without the O-rings • The shaft nut maybe installed and locked in place.4. Hydraulic bore installations: • After the axial pull-up values and blue contact of the taper have been verified. . • The hydraulic mounting devices are fitted and pressurized to push the hub to its desired axial position. The hydraulic mounting device may then be removed.. Reference measurement should be done to ensure correct axial pull up. It is recommended for some time to elapse before applying torque to the coupling to draining of any trapped oil. After the axial pull-up values and the blue-contact of the taper have been verified.

Hub bore tolerance Vs. Shaft tolerance A shaft-Hub bore assembly usually has „interference fit‟. Shaft h6 k6 n6 j6 m6 p6 Hub bore P7 M7 J7 N7 K7 H7 .

Double keys should be of same weight. The key is tight in shaft keyways 2. 3. 5. 6. Clearance radial fir between top of key and hub keyway. • The important checks for the keys shall be: 1. Key edges to be chamfered to fit radiuses in keyways. Key has slide fit (not loose) in hub keyway.Key/keyway fits • The keyways shall be machined as per the tolerances specified in AGMA 9002-A86. 4. with no excess material. . Single keys should fill the voids in the hub and shaft exactly for dynamic balance.

(3) High casing temperatures at or near the bearings or high discharge oil temperatures. alignment of equipment should be within 0.0005 inch/inch of separation between flex points. • Excessive misalignment causes the following symptoms in rotating equipment: (1) Premature bearing and seal failures (2) Excessive radial and axial vibration. • For general purpose equipment. • For high speed applications (generally over 3600 rpm). alignment should be within 0.Alignment • Misalignment is the deviation of relative shaft position from a collinear axis of rotation measured at the point of power transmission when the equipment is running at normal operating conditions.001 inch/inch of separation between flex points. .

Alignment (Contd.) (4) Excessive amount of oil leakage at the bearing seals. (5) Loose foundation bolts. (8) The shaft are breaking (or cracking) at or close to the inboard bearings or coupling hubs. . (6) Loose or broken coupling bolts. (7) Unusually high number of coupling failures.

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3. Regular cleaning of sludge (in continuous lubricated oil couplings): Sludge build up can cause gear locking up.Maintenance of couplings • 1. Observations for symptoms of overloading and rectification: Overloading can lead to tooth shearing or pitting of the gears. Hence coupling should be cleaned of sludge every 8000 hrs. Inadequacy of lubricant can lead to cold material flow. which can corrode coupling parts and act as a source of crack initiation for fatigue propagated failure of part. . 4. distortion/breaking of flexible element of disc couplings 2. cold welding. diaphragm distortion or breakage. The following points should be taken care of in routine maintenance of couplings: Sufficient lubricant supply: Inspect grease/oil quality and quantity. thinning of the gear teeth & gear lock-up (in case of geared couplings). Sludge also collects corrosive residue. Proper alignment: Misalignment can lead to cracking or breaking of the gear teeth.

7. flange adapter and pilot joints Inspect tightening torque of fasteners. Visually inspect for any nicks. Rotate the equipment and listen for abnormal sounds. broken parts may give out clicking sounds.) 5. cracks or breakages of flexible element in case of disc/diaphragm coupling. 6.Maintenance of couplings (Contd. Inspect for loose fasteners. . keys hubs. 8.

Failure of gear couplings Tooth thinning due to poor lubrication Tooth breakage due to misalignment .

Gear coupling failures ( Contd.) Tooth shearing due to overload Contamination due to sludge .

Diaphragm coupling failure Stress corrosion fatigue failure of diaphragm .

) Failure of tapered contour diaphragm Failure due to overloading .Diaphragm coupling failure (contd.

Non-sparking guards shall be used in Zone 0. • Coupling guards are usually made of brass to avoid sparking. This leads to churning of air that generates heat and pressure differential pockets in the coupling guard. • The coupling enclosure of dry type coupling shall be designed so as not to exceed 80 C.Coupling Guards • Coupling guards should be made of a spark proof material as per zone/area classification. . • Coupling guards shall be designed to minimize the impact of these phenomena. The above limit may be lowered in case the couplings are equipped with electronic instrumentation.1 and 2 • Dry couplings generate a lot more windage.

AGMA 9004-xxx Flexible Coupling .Keyless Fits 5. Chemical and Gas Industries .01 Metric Dimensions for Gear Couplings 7.Potential Unbalance Classification 2. AGMA 9001-B97 Flexible Coupling . AGMA 922-A98 (Information Sheet) Load Classification and Service Factors for Flexible Couplings API Coupling Standards: API 671-Special Purpose Couplings For Service in the Petroleum. AGMA 9003-A91 Flexible Couplings .Applicable Standards AGMA COUPLING STANDARDS 1. AGMA 510. AGMA 9000-C90 Flexible Couplings . AGMA 516. AGMA 9002-A86 Bores and Key ways for Flexible Couplings (inch Series) 4.3 Nomenclature for Flexible Couplings 8.Mass Elastic Properties and Other Characteristics 6.Lubrication 3.

• Axial Movement of coupling of a charge pump after motor change. .Typical failures • Frequent failure of Membranes:Analysis found that key way was loose on shaft slot.

Thank you .

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