CONCEPTUAL MAPPINGS IN TOURISM ADVERTISING – A SEMIOTIC APPROACH

What is semiotics / semiology?
 the study of signs and symbols, esp. the relations

between written or spoken signs and their referents in the physical world or the world of ideas (The Free Dictionary).
 ''Semiotics is in principle the discipline studying

everything which can be used in order to lie” (U. Eco, 1979)

DENOTATION - CONNOTATION - MYTH
 Denotation = literal meaning (vocabulary meaning) –

digital code (or-or)  Connotation = indirect, culturally marked meaning – analogue code (and-and)
 Photography: denotation = what is photographed;

connotation = how it is photographed

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2. Denotation and connotation = levels of meaning  Denotation = first order of signification  Connotation = second order of signification 1. SIGNIFIER SIGNIFIED SIGN SIGNIFIER SIGNIFIED SIGN 4 .

MYTH • Ideology (myth) = third order of signification .signified: Africa – army -French patriotism .meaning (myth): France is a big colonial empire and all her sons of all colours and ages faithfully serve under her flag. 5 .signifier: black child – saluting French uniform .

Myths (when taken as natural) hide ideological functions of signs and codes Myths are extended metaphors  The role of semiotics is in unveiling the dominant myths of a particular culture – tourism culture included .Characteristics of myths:      Myths generate signs and codes which support them Myths transform history into a natural (and undisputable) ‘reality’ Function of myth .to naturalize the cultural.

slogan brand name market positioning logo “Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind” .

national)  based on slogan’s value proposition .SLOGANS sluagh – ghairm > a war cry used among Scottish clans e. 2003).  brand = tourist destination (local. regional. Buaidh no Bàs! (Victory or Death)  a short phrase that communicates either descriptive or persuasive information about the brand (Keller.g.

• Travel motivation benefits: ‘Ruapehu – where adventure begins’. • Focus: ‘Auckland– city of sails’. • Market segmentation: ‘Hawkes Bay – wine country’. Great times’. • Brand leadership: ‘Zambia – the real Africa’. adventure and travel’ • Combinations of the above: ‘Michigan. culture. . Great Lakes. • Symbols of self expression: ‘Pack your six senses – come to Peru’. • Countering risk: ‘Cuba – peaceful. safe and healthy tourism’.VARIOUS CATEGORISATIONS OF SLOGANS Pike (2004):  • Functional destination attributes: Hurunui – alpine Pacific          triangle’. • Affective qualities: ‘West Virginia – wild and wonderful’. • Unfocus: ‘Ecuador – nature.

Grand canyon state” Exclusive appeal: “Virginia is for lovers” Average Joe: “New Jersey and you. perfect together” .Lee.The natural state” Unique attribute-focused:“Arizona . Cai and O’Leary (2006):  Buy us because we are good: “Ohio -A Perfect     Getaway” Common attribute-based: ‘”Arkansas .

Metaphors We Live By.” (Lakoff and Johnson. 1980)  Conceptual metaphor is a natural part of human thought  Linguistic metaphor is a natural part of human language .CONCEPTUAL MAPPING APPROACH “The essence of metaphors is understanding and experiencing one kind of things in terms of another.

CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS ANGER TIME GOOD IS HEAT MONEY CLEAN target domain MAPPING source domain .

She spent hours playing with her granddaughter .LINGUISTIC METAPHORS  ANGER IS HEAT: .I invested three years of my life in writing that book .We had a flaming argument about religion .I wasted my time on this research project .All the time I was boiling with rage .He's hot tempered but he soon gets over his anger  TIME IS MONEY: .

CONCEPTUAL DIVERSIFICATION one target – more source domains GOOD IS CLEAN  He is one of the few clean GOOD IS FIRST  I'm your number-one fan  my family had to take second politicians  It was an immaculate performance  she had a spotless reputation place to my career  this is a third rate dictionary .

mostly presented at 2012 WTM London  model : conceptual mapping based on the target domain GOOD (IMPRESSIVE / REPUTABLE) .CORPUS ANALYSIS  semasiological classification of about 150 slogans of national and regional tourist boards.

Natural. Get natural Uruguay natural Cuba autentica Dominican Republic – the nature Island Naturally Nepal – once is not enough Costa Rica – no artificial ingredients Croatia . 100% Pure New Zealand Pure Russia .GOOD IS NATURAL / AUTHENTIC               Switzerland. The Way Life Should Be. Iceland.The Mediterranean as it once was¸ Malta –Truly Mediterranean Malaysia – Truly Asia Montenegro -Experience the Wild Beauty Trinidad & Tobago – the true Caribbean Pure. Unspoiled.

explore & enjoy Reveal your own Russia Peru – empire of hidden treasures Ukraine yours to discover Sierra Leone – the freedom to explore Zambia – Let’s explore Discover Mongolia Japan – Endless Discovery Come to Bangladesh before the tourists .GOOD IS UNDISCOVERED              Discover the unexpected Luxembourg Serbia .Discover Undiscovered Romania – explore the Carpatian Garden Canada – keep exploring Guyana –experience.

Unique in its Diversity Czech Republic – Stunningly Different The Seychelles Islands – another world Georgia – for the best moments of your life Nicaragua – unica. There's only one.GOOD IS UNIQUE                Uniquely Singapore Australia. Puerto Rico does it better . Sicilia. Everything else is in the shade Ireland – Awaken to a different world Bulgaria . Andalucia. Ultimate in Diversity. A different light There’s nothing like Australia There's no place like Hong Kong Sydney .. original! Indonesia..There's no place like it.

The Island for All Seasons Cyprus.GOOD IS DIVERSE            Amazing Thailand – Experience Variety Amazing Thailand – Dreams for all seasons Cyprus.Unique in its Diversity Indonesia. A whole world on a single island Spain. Ultimate in Diversity. Dominican Republic has it all Karnataka – one state many worlds Valencia Region – gives you everything Antigua and Barbuda – the beach is just the beginning . Everything Under the Sun Bulgaria .

Everything else is in the shade Australia. A different light Spain. Everything Under the Sun Maldives – the sunny side of life . Live the Life Live it up in Singapore! Ecuador – love life GOOD IS LIGHT     Sicilia.GOOD IS VIVID     Nigeria – tourism is life Normandy – Love the Land.

Positively Transforming. A Destination for the New Millenium Albania .A New Mediterranean to Love South Africa – Inspiring new ways Estonia.GOOD IS BIG     Wales. Big country Slovakia – Little Big Country Croatia – a small country for a great holiday Bhutan – land of gross national happiness GOOD IS NEW     Vietnam. .

Be inspired .GOOD IS FIRST / OLDEST     Come to Bangladesh before the tourists Delaware – the first state Egypt where it all begins Ethiopia the cradle of humankind GOOD IS DREAM / IMAGINATION      Amazing Thailand – Dreams for all seasons Qatar – where dreams come to life Ireland – Awaken to a different world Poland – Move your imagination Korea .

 Cambodia – Kingdom of  Live your myth in Greece  Iceland is my spiritland  India. Eternally Yours  North Cyprus – Timeless        Beauty Vietnam – timeless charm Magical Kenya Zimbabwe –a world of wonders Refreshingly Sri Lanka – wonder of Asia    wonder Kazakhstan – the land of wonders Wonderful Indonesia Brasil – Sensational! Thailand always amazes you Incredible India Rajasthan – The Incredible State of India . God's own country.GOOD IS SUPERNATURAL / DIVINE  Kerala.

You've arrived I Wish I was in Finland I need Spain Bolivia awaits you GOOD IS MUSIC  Argentina – beats to your rhythm  Latvia. ." GOOD IS DESIRE / IMPATIENCE       Australia .We can't wait to say G'day Austria. At last! Austria.GOOD IS FRIENDLY     Scotland welcomes the world Belarus – Hospitality beyond borders Abu Dhabi – travellers welcome You've Got a Friend in Pennsylvania. The Land that Sings.

Much More Australia .Beautiful one day.GOOD IS MORE / EXCESSIVE            More than the usual Italy . perfect the next It’ s more fun in the Philippines Tunisia – there’s more to celebrate Naturally Nepal – once is not enough Bermuda – so much more Abu Dhabi – and you think you’ve done it all? Turkey Unlimited Belarus – Hospitality beyond borders Japan – Endless Discovery .

feel it. explore & enjoy Swaziland – a royal experience Hong Kong will take your breath away! Mauritius – it's a pleasure Latvia – Best enjoyed slowly Jump into Ireland Morocco the country that travels within you . love it Paraguay – you have to feel it Montenegro -Experience the Wild Beauty Guyana –experience.GOOD IS PHYSICAL EXPERIENCE / SENSATION            I Feel Slovenia Lithuania – See it.

Your Heart-Shaped Land  Taiwan – the heart of Asia  Malawi the warm heart of Africa  Smile! You are in Spain!  My Indonesia – Just a Smile Away  Gambia – the smiling coast of Africa .GOOD EMOTION IS BODY PART (REACTION)  Bosnia .

Europe's West Coast The Mediterranean as it once was Cyprus. A whole world on a single island Malta –Truly Mediterranean Malaysia – Truly Asia Trinidad & Tobago – the true Caribbean Romania – explore the Carpatian Garden Refreshingly Sri Lanka – wonder of Asia Gambia – the smiling coast of Africa .A (GOOD) PART FOR A WHOLE           Albania .A New Mediterranean to Love Portugal .

fijime.UNCLASSIFIED  Holland – add some      orange Colombia – the only risk is wanting to stay California – find  yourself here Venezuela is your  destination  Germany – the travel destination Go Goa – a perfect holiday destination  Cameroon is back  China Tourism / Beautiful China www.com Definitely Dubai Beautiful Bangladesh .

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 .

Most dominant source domains:  SUPERNATURAL / DIVINE  UNIQUE  NATURAL / AUTHENTIC  UNDISCOVERED  DIVERSE Universal or relative concepts? .

 Universal concepts = ‘phyisical’ metaphors (AFFECTION IS WARMTH)  Relative concepts = cultural metaphors Both concepts and metaphors can be novel (‘fresh’) or conventional (‘worn-out’) .

. 2002). .. more and more novel and associated metaphors are required which link the changing nature of the tourist to an ever mutable environment” (Dann.“.

Thank you! .

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