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# Scientific Measurement

Accuracy

- a measure of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity being measured.

Example

According

to the manufacturer, this laptop has a mass of 2.5 kg. Miguel would like to find out if it is really 2.5 kg so he used a triple beam balance to measure it in three trials. The results are as follows: 2.4kg, 2.6kg, and 2.5kg. Is he accurate?

Example: Accuracy

Who

is more accurate when measuring a book that has a true length of 17.0cm? Alvin: 17.0cm, 16.0cm, 18.0cm, 15.0cm Adrian: 15.5cm, 15.0cm, 15.2cm, 15.3cm

Precision

– a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another.

Example

According

to the manufacturer, this laptop has a mass of 2.5 kg. Miguel would like to find out if it is really 2.5 kg so he used a triple beam balance to measure it in three trials. The results are as follows: 2.4kg, 2.6kg, and 2.5kg. Is he precise?

Example: Precision

Who is more precise when measuring the same 17.0cm book? Alvin: 17.0cm, 16.0cm, 18.0cm, 15.0cm Adrian: 15.5cm, 15.0cm, 15.2cm, 15.3cm

**Evaluate whether the following are precise, accurate or both.
**

1 2 3

Accurate

Not Accurate Accurate Precise

Not Precise Precise

Error

Error= experimental –accepted value

Percent Error

% Error= |experimental –accepted| x100 accepted value

Example

The

normal room temperature is 25°C. John would like to confirm this so he looked at the thermometer and the thermometer reading is 26°C. What is the percent error of the reading?

Systems of Measurement

English

System grew out of the creative way that people measured for themselves. Familiar objects and parts of the body were used as measuring devices. Example: feet, gallon, tablespoon

Systems of Measurement

System

International (abbreviated SI from the French le Système International d'unités) is the modern form of the metric system and is generally a system devised around the convenience of the number ten. It is the world's most widely used system of measurement, both in everyday commerce and in science.

Quantity Length Mass Temperature Time

Base SI Units Unit meter kilogram Kelvin second

Symbol m Kg K s mol cd A

Amount of mole Substance Luminous Intensity candela Electric Current ampere

**Derived SI Units (examples)
**

Quantity Volume Density Speed Force Energy Pressure unit cubic meter Symbol m3

kilograms per kg/m3 cubic meter meter per second m/s Newton (kg m/s2) N Joule (kg m2/s2) Pascal (kg/ms2) J Pa

**SI Unit Prefixes
**

Name gigamegakilodecicentimillimicronanopicoSymbol G M k d c m μ n p 109 106 103 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12

Mass

of the Earth 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 g Number of particles in 1 g of H atom 602 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 particles Diameter of H atom 0.000 000 01 cm

Mass

of an electron 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 91 g Speed of light 30 000 000 000 cm/s

Can you imagine if you have to solve mathematical problems using those numbers? It will be a lengthy operation! Is there a way of making it simple? YES!

Scientific Notation

General

Form

N x 10

n

Rules:

Find n by moving the decimal point so that you leave only one non-zero digit to the left of it. Find n by counting the number of places through which you moved the decimal point.

Note:

If you moved the decimal point to the left, n is positive. This means that the number is greater than 1. If you moved the decimal point to the right, n is negative. This means that the number is less than 1.

Mass

of the Earth 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 g 6.0 x 1027 g

Number

of particles in 1 g of H

**atom 602 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 particles 6.02 x 10 particles
**

23

Diameter

**of H atom 0.000 000 01 cm 1.0 x 10 cm
**

-8

Mass

of an electron 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 91 g 9.1 x 10-28 g

Speed

**of light 30 000 000 000 cm/s 3.0 x 10 cm/s
**

10

**Write the following numbers in scientific notation:
**

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

0.004 910 kg 0.000 441 2 m 0.000 076 0 cm 0.000 000 003 90 mL 0.000 004 830 K

Answers

4.910 x 10-3 kg 4.412 x 10-4 m 7.60 x 10-5 cm 3.90 x 10-9 mL 4.830 x 10-6 K

Centimeters and Millimeters

Graduated Cylinder - Meniscus

Significant Figures

The

significant figures in a measurement include all of the digits that are known (certain), plus one last digit that is estimated (uncertain).

How many significant figures are there in a given measurement?

Every nonzero digit in a reported measurement is significant. Ex. 24.7 m 3 SF 0.743 m 3 SF 714 m 3 SF

Zeros appearing between nonzero digits are significant. Ex. 7003 m 4 SF 40.79 m 4 SF 1.503 m 4 SF

Leftmost zeros appearing in front of nonzero digits are not significant. They act as placeholders. Ex. 0.0071 m 2 SF 0.42 m 2 SF 0.0000099 m 2 SF

Zeros at the end of a number and to the right of a decimal point are always significant. Ex. 43.00 m 4 SF 1.010 m 4 SF 9.000 m 4 SF

Zeros at the rightmost end of a measurement that lie to the left of an understood decimal point are not significant if they serve as placeholders to show the magnitude of the number. Ex. 300 m 1 SF 7000 m 1 SF 27210 m 4 SF

Counting Numbers

Counting

numbers have infinite significant figures. 3 apples, 44 students

Ex:

**Significant Figures in Addition/Subtraction
**

The result has the same number of decimal places as the number in the operation with the least decimal places. Ex: 2.33 cm +3.0 cm 5.33 cm round off to 5.3 cm

**Significant Figures in Multiplication/Division
**

The

answer has the same significant figures as the factor with the least significant figures. Ex: 3.22 cm x 2.0 cm 6.44 cm2 round off to 6.4 cm2

C) International System of Units and Prefixes

**Units for Volume
**

m3 cm3 dm3 L mL Liter 1 dm3 = 1L 1cm3= 1mL

Temperature

A measure of how hot or how cold an object is. SI Unit: the kelvin

Note:

(K)

not a degree Absolute Zero= 0 K

Temperature Scales

**Celsius and Kelvin
**

K= oC + 273

Farenheit and Celsius

o

F= (1.8 oC ) +32

**Unit for Weight
**

1 Newton 1 N= kg m/s2

**Units for Energy
**

Joule calorie

J 1 cal= 4.184 J

1 cal = quantity of heat needed to raise the temp of 1g of water by 1 oC.

Note:

1 Cal = 1kcal =1000cal

**SI Unit Prefixes
**

Name gigamegakilodecicentimillimicronanopicoSymbol G M k d c m μ n p 109 106 103 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12

**SI Unit Prefixes for Length
**

Name gigameter megameter kilometer decimeter centimeter millimeter micrometer nanometer picometer Symbol Gm Mm km dm cm mm μm nm pm Analogy 109 106 103 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12

D) Factor Label Method of Unit ConversionDimensional Analysis

**Factor-Label Method
**

Example:

Convert 5km to m:

NEW UNIT 5km x 1,000m =5,000m km OLD UNIT

Convert 7,000m to km

7,000m x 1 km = 7 km 1,000m

Convert 2.45cs to s

2.45cs

x 1s = 0.0245s 100cs

Convert 55.00 km/h to m/s

55.00 km x 1000 m x 1 h___ = 15.28m/s h 1 km 3600 s

**Density of Some Common Substances
**

Substance Gold Mercury Aluminum Corn oil Ethanol Gasoline

Carbon dioxide

Oxygen Ammonia

Density 19.3 g/cm3 13.6 g/cm3 2.70 g/cm3 0.922 g/cm3 0.789 g/cm3 0.66 g/cm3 1.83 g/cm3 1.33 g/cm3 0.718 g/cm3

**What is the common unit of density? g/cm
**

3

What quantity is measured by the unit gram (g)? MASS

What quantity is measured by the unit 3 cubic centimeter (cm )? VOLUME

What is DENSITY?

DENSITY

Is

defined as MASS per unit VOLUME

MASS DENSITY = VOLUME m v

ρ=

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

Is

a comparison of the density of a substance with the density of a reference substance (water)

Density of Substance Specific Gravity = Density of Water