Changes in Matter

Adapted from Chemical Interactions

Discover Activity
• Obtain a small piece of chalk. Observe it and record its properties in your notebook. • Place the chalk on a piece of paper and crush it with the back of a spoon. Record the changes that occurred in your notebook

Discover Activity (Cont.)
• Place some of the crushed chalk into the bowl of the spoon. Add about 8 drops of vinegar. Record what happens in your notebook.

Explanation
• Chalk is mostly a single substance, calcium carbonate. Do you think a new substance was formed when the chalk was crushed? • Do you think a new substance was formed when vinegar was added? Provide evidence for your answers.

Chemistry
• The study of matter and it’s changes.

Physical Changes
• Changes that alter the f orm or appearance of matter. • Does not change the substances in the matter into new substances.

Examples of Physical Changes…
• Changes in State
• When matter changes from a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a gas. • Ice/water vapor/liquid water

• Dissolving, bending, crushing, breaking, chopping, melting, freezing, condensation, sublimation, vaporization

Check for understanding
Why is the melting of an ice cube called a physical change? •The substance is still water, just the form has changed.

Chemical Change
• Occurs when a substance is transformed into a different substance. • The newly formed substances have different properties than the original substances.

Examples of Chemical Changes…
• • • • • Combustion Electrolysis Oxidation Tarnishing Rusting

Evidence for Chemical Reactions…
• Color Change • Formation of precipitate • Gas production • Temperature changes • Changes in properties

Nuclear Change
• This changes occurs in the nucleus of atoms • This occurs everyday within the sun • There are 2 types:
• Nuclear fusion • Nuclear fission

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear Fusion

Conservation of Mass
• What happens to a candle as it burns? • LAW of conservation of mass states that MATTER IS NOT CREATED OR DESTROYED IN ANY CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL CHANGE.

Review
1. Identify three different kinds of physical changes that could happen to a crayon. 2. Which of the following is not a physical change:
• • • Drying wet clothes Cutting snowflakes out of paper Light a match

Review
3. What evidence would you look for to determine whether a chemical change had occurred? 4. Why is the electrolysis of water classified as a chemical change but the freezing of water is not?

Credits
Chemical Interactions, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005, Boston, MA

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