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GENERAL PRINCIPLES IN TEACHING LANGUAGE SKILLS

BY: FELISCA FARAH RUBERT WENDY ANAK JUNA

Purpose Of Teaching Languange Skills

using graphic organizers. and cooperative or peer tutoring techniques . Increase Comprehensibility Krashen’s theory of comprehensible input involves the ways in which teachers can make content more understandable to their students providing many nonverbal clues such as pictures. hands-on learning opportunities. and intonation cues building from language that is already understood. objects. gestures.1. demonstrations.

Native Language the advantage of incorporating a student’s native language into their instruction using a student’s native language as a support can be seen as both a general method or as any of a number of specific strategies. the use of a student’s native language to increase his or her understanding. . Many of the strategies including implicitly or explicitly.

study buddies. Increase Interaction Drawing from Swain’s emphasis on comprehensible output a number of strategies have been developed that increase students’ opportunities to use their language skills in direct communication and for the purpose of "negotiating meaning" in real-life situations. cooperative learning. and one-to-one teacher/student interactions.2. projectbased learning. .

higher order thinking skills as a student’s competency increases. Increase Thinking Skills Drawing from Cummins’s theories of academic language and cognitively demanding communication ways to develop more advanced.3. .

. modeling "thinking language" by thinking aloud.g. and holding high expectations for all students. explicitly teaching and reinforcing study skills and test-taking skills.what would happen if…?).These include asking students higher order thinking questions (e..

Strategies In Teaching Language Skills .

discussion Mastery learning Questioning. direction Debate. puzzle. drawing. linguistic. verbal Role play.visual hands on activities Group task (discussion) Project work. public speaking Out door learning Demonstration. surfing internet.Principles Multiple Intelligent Strategies Activities Musical. discussion . singing. games Cooperative and collaborative learning Computer based learning Observation Listening. treasure hunt. group problem solving. power point presentation Simulation. kinesthetic.

LEARNER'S ATTITUDES AND MOTIVATION .

because of decreased input and interaction cause to unsuccessful attainment in proficiency. Positive attitudes toward self. Negative attitudes may lead to decreased motivation and in all likelihood.ATTITUDES Gardner and Lambert’s (1972) defined motivation as a construct made up of certain attitudes. the native language group. . and the target language group enhanced proficiency.

. magazines in English •Make efforts to get into situations where English is used and they use English as often as they can.SUCCESSFUL LANGUAGE LEARNERS' ATTITUDES •Positive towards English and speakers of English •Motivated to learn English for a few reasons : –to interact with other speakers of English –to further their education –to get a better paid job –to read books.

They achieve success and develop competence. Dare to make mistakes and learn from mistakes that they make. . thus motivates them to learn more. Prepared to take risks. phrases and sentences and their meaning.Consciously try out new strategies learning and remembering new words.

interactive forces in control Motivation .) • Degree of effort expended • Internal. etc. manipulation.Cognitive • Driven by basic human needs (exploration. individual forces in control Constructivist • Social context • Community • Social status • Security of group • Internal. individual forces in control Behavioristic • Anticipation of reward • Desire to receive positive reinforcement • External.

•2 types of motivation –Extrinsic –Intrinsic . students who are highly motivated will achieve greater success compared to less motivated students. •In a group of students of similar intelligence’s level.LEARNER'S MOTIVATION •Motivation is a very important factor in successful language acquisition.

.EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Caused by external factors –Integrative motivation •To be accepted into the culture of the speakers of English –Instrumental motivation •The prospect of gaining entry into a college or university or getting a better paid job. –To be acknowledged •A desire for praise and recognition from fellow students and teachers.

namely. 1975 17 .Intrinsically motivated behaviors are aimed at bringing about certain internally rewarding consequences. feelings of competence and self determination.” -Edward Deci. People seems to engage in the activities for their own sake and not because they lead to an extrinsic reward….INTRINSIC MOTIVATION “Intrinsically motivated activities are ones for which there is no apparent reward except the activity itself.

Student who comes from a family that has a very positive attitude towards English will also have a love for the language and will want to master it to the best of his ability. .Desire to learn English for its own sake eg.

LEARNERS' LEVEL OF ABILITIES .

. It is a current assessment of what one can do.LEARNER'S LEVEL OF ABILITY Ability refers to an individuals capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.

Learner’s level of ability Physical Spiritual Emotional ABILITIES Social Intellectual .

and similar characteristics. . strength. dexterity.PHYSICAL ABILITIES It is the capacity to do tasks demanding stamina.

23 .EMOTIONAL ABILITIES Emotions are important in the classroom in two major ways. emotionally safe classroom environment to provide for the optimal learning of students. For these reasons. it is important for teachers to create a positive. learning how to manage feelings and relationships constitutes a kind of “emotional intelligence” that enables people to be successful. influence ability to process information and to accurately understand what we encounter.

To fit in .SOCIAL ABILITIES Ability to socialize with others.

THANK YOU .