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In the mathematics class, you were taught to calculate current across a RLC circuit using differential equations.

After the class you moved to BEEE lab and think to correlate the theoretical concept with the practical concept. Design a RLC circuit and calculate the theoretical current and the actual current in the circuit. Also obtain the errors for different combinations of R-L-C.

An RLC circuit is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor, an inductor, and a capacitor, connected in series or in parallel. The RLC part of the name is due to those letters being the usual electrical symbols for resistance, inductance and capacitance respectively.

Different values of Resistance Different values of Inductance Different values of Capacitor Voltmeter Ammeter Transformer ICs
For Blinker Circuit:
Elements used Capacitor Inductor Resistor Resistor Quantity 3 3 3 3 Reading 22F 10H 5k 470

The current inside an R-L-C circuit can be calculated using : Differential Equation:

For Blinker Circuit:

Theoretical Value 0.1mA

Experimental Value 0.06mA

Error 0.04mA

Calculating the experimental and the actual current of R-L-C circuit combinations of same values, we find the difference in value of current. The difference is due to the losses occurring in measuring the values of current experimentally. The losses occurred due to resistance of conductors, loose connections and the frictional errors.

Effect of Power factor: (cosine of phase angle between voltage and current)
If the power factor is less, the current will be more which tends to increase the losses in the circuit and hence results in the reduction of efficiency. Again if the power factor is low, we require larger rating of the equipment.

When we calculate the current using the R-L-C circuit and compare it with theoretical value calculated using second order differential equation , we find the difference in the values which is due to losses caused by resistance of conductors, loose connections and the frictional errors which shows that efficiency of a circuit can never be 100%.

The R-L-C circuit can be used to produce different types of blinking effects in the LEDs.

They can also be used in music generators to produce various effects.

Higher Engineering Mathematics by B.V RAMANA. Basics of Electrical and Electronics Engineering by EDWARD HUGHES. Basics of Electrical and Electronics Engineering by BOBROW.