•
How is the heat transfer?
•
Mechanism of Convection
•
Applications .
•
Mean fluid Velocity and Boundary and their effect on the rate of heat
transfer.
•
Fundamental equation of heat transfer
•
Logarithmicmean temperature difference.
•
Heat transfer Coefficients.
•
Heat flux and Nusselt correlation
•
Simulation program for Heat Exchanger
How is the heat transfer?
•
Heat can transfer between the surface of a solid conductor
and the surrounding medium whenever temperature
gradient exists.
Conduction
Convection
Natural convection
Forced Convection
Natural and forced Convection
Natural convection occurs whenever heat flows
between a solid and fluid, or between fluid
layers.
As a result of heat exchange
Change in density of effective fluid layers taken
place, which causes upward flow of heated
fluid.
If this motion is associated with heat transfer mechanism
only, then it is called Natural Convection
Forced Convection
If this motion is associated by mechanical means such as
pumps, gravity or fans, the movement of the fluid is
enforced.
And in this case, we then speak of Forced convection.
Heat Exchangers
•
A device whose primary purpose is the transfer of energy
between two fluids is named a Heat Exchanger.
Applications of Heat Exchangers
Heat Exchangers
prevent car engine
overheating and
increase efficiency
Heat exchangers are
used in Industry for
heat transfer
Heat
exchangers are
used in AC and
furnaces
•
The closedtype exchanger is the most popular one.
•
One example of this type is the Double pipe exchanger.
•
In this type, the hot and cold fluid streams do not come
into direct contact with each other. They are separated by
a tube wall or flat plate.
Principle of Heat Exchanger
•
First Law of Thermodynamic: “Energy is conserved.”
generated s
in out
out in
e w q h m h m
dt
dE
& & & & & + + +
,
`
.

− ·
∑ ∑
`
.
`
.
∑ ∑
− ·
out in
h m h m
ö
.
ö
. & &
h
h
p h h
T C m A Q ∆ · . . .
&
c
c
p c c
T C m A Q ∆ · . . . &
0
0 0 0
•Control Volume
Q
h
Cross Section Area
HOT
COLD
Thermal Boundary Layer
Q hot Q cold
T
h
T
i,wall
T
o,wall
T
c
Region I : Hot Liquid
Solid Convection
NEWTON’S LAW OF
CCOLING
dq
x
= h
h
. T
h
 T
iw
( )
.dA
Region II : Conduction
Across Copper Wall
FOURIER’S LAW
dq
x
=  k.
dT
dr
Region III: Solid –
Cold Liquid
Convection
NEWTON’S LAW OF
CCOLING
dq
x
= h
c
. T
ow
 T
c
( )
.dA
THERMAL
BOUNDARY LAYER
Energy moves from hot fluid
to a surface by convection,
through the wall by
conduction, and then by
convection from the surface to
the cold fluid.
•
Velocity distribution and boundary layer
When fluid flow through a circular tube of uniform cross
suction and fully developed,
The velocity distribution depend on the type of the flow.
In laminar flow the volumetric flowrate is a function of the
radius.
V = volumetric flowrate
u = average mean velocity
In turbulent flow, there is no such distribution.
•
The molecule of the flowing fluid which adjacent to the
surface have zero velocity because of massattractive
forces. Other fluid particles in the vicinity of this layer,
when attempting to slid over it, are slow down by viscous
forces.
r
Boundary
layer
•
Accordingly the temperature gradient is larger at the wall
and through the viscous sublayer, and small in the
turbulent core.
•
The reason for this is
1) Heat must transfer through the boundary layer by
conduction.
2) Most of the fluid have a low thermal conductivity (k)
3) While in the turbulent core there are a rapid moving
eddies, which they are equalizing the temperature.
heating
cooling
Tube wall
T
wh
T
wc
T
c
Metal
wall
δ
Oopµ oiuiô
)oiô oiuiô
q
x
= hADT
q
x
= hA(T
w
 T)
q
x
=
k
d
A(T
w
 T)
h
Region I : Hot Liquid –
Solid Convection
T
h
 T
iw
=
q
x
h
h
.A
i
q
x
= h
hot
. T
h
 T
iw
( )
.A
Region II : Conduction
Across Copper Wall
q
x
=
k
copper
.2pL
ln
r
o
r
i
T
o,wall
 T
i,wall
=
q
x
.ln
r
o
r
i
æ
è
ç
ö
ø
÷
k
copper
.2pL
Region III : Solid –
Cold Liquid Convection
T
o,wall
 T
c
=
q
x
h
c
.A
o
q
x
= h
c
T
o,wall
 T
c
( )
A
o
+
T
h
 T
c
= q
x
1
h
h
.A
i
+
ln
r
o
r
i
æ
è
ç
ö
ø
÷
k
copper
.2pL
+
1
h
c
.A
o
é
ë
ê
ê
ê
ê
ù
û
ú
ú
ú
ú
q
x
=U.A. T
h
 T
c
( )
1
1
.
ln .
.
−
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
+
,
`
.

+ ·
)oiô i )orrrp
i
o
o
i not
o
n p x
p
p
p
p n
p
Y
U = The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient [W/m.K]
T
h
 T
c
=
q
x
R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3
U =
1
A.SR
r
o
r
i
Calculating U using Log Mean Temperature
Hot Stream :
Cold Stream:
,
`
.

− · ∆
c
p c
c
h
p h
h
C m
dq
C m
dq
T d
. .
) (
,
`
.

+ ∆ − · ∆
c
p c
h
p h
C m C m
dA T U T d
.
1
.
1
. . . ) (
∫ ∫
,
`
.

+ − ·
∆
∆
∆
∆
2
1
2
1
.
.
1
.
1
.
) (
A
A
c
p c
h
p h
T
T
dA
C m C m
U
T
T d
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
out
c
in
c
out
h
in
h c h
T T T T
q
A U
T T
q
A U
T
T
    = D + D  =
÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
D
D . . .
ln
1
2
∫ ∫
,
`
.

∆
+
∆
− ·
∆
∆
∆
∆
2
1
2
1
. .
) (
A
A
c
c
h
h
T
T
dA
q
T
q
T
U
T
T d
,
`
.

∆
∆
∆ − ∆
·
1
2
1 2
ln
.
T
T
T T
A U q
Log Mean Temperature
CON CURRENT FLOW
,
`
.

∆
∆
∆ − ∆
· ∆
1
2
1 2
ln
T
T
T T
T
Ln
7 3 1
T T T T T
in
c
in
h
− · − · ∆
10 6 2
T T T T T
out
c
out
h
− · − · ∆
COUNTER CURRENT FLOW
10 6 2
T T T T T
in
c
out
h
− · − · ∆
7 3 1
T T T T T
out
c
in
h
− · − · ∆
U =
ú m
h
.
ú
C
p
h
. T
3
 T
6
( )
A.DT
Ln
=
ú m
c
.
ú
C
p
c
. T
7
 T
10
( )
A.DT
Ln
T1
T2
T4 T5
T3
T7 T8 T9
T10
T6
Counter Current Flow
T1
T2
T4 T5
T6
T3
T7
T8 T9
T10
Parallel Flow
Log Mean Temperature evaluation
T
1
A
1 2
T
2
T
3
T
6
T
4
T
6
T
7
T
8
T
9
T
10
Wall
∆ T1
∆ T2
∆ A
A
1 2
T
1
A
1 2
T
2
T
3
T
6
T
4
T
6
T
7
T
8
T
9
T
10
Wall
q = h
h
A
i
DT
lm
∆T
lm
=
(T
3
 T
1
)  (T
6
 T
2
)
ln
(T
3
 T
1
)
(T
6
 T
2
)
q = h
c
A
o
DT
lm
∆T
lm
=
(T
1
 T
7
)  (T
2
 T
10
)
ln
(T
1
 T
7
)
(T
2
 T
10
)
Nu = f (Re,Pr, L/ D,m
b
/m
o
)
DIMENSIONLESS ANALYSIS TO CHARACTERIZE A HEAT EXCHANGER
Nu = a.Re
b
.Pr
c
•Further Simplification:
Can Be Obtained from 2 set of experiments
One set, run for constant Pr
And second set, run for constant Re
h
•
For laminar flow
Nu = 1.62 (Re*Pr*L/D)
•
Empirical Correlation
14 . 0
3 / 1 8 . 0
. Pr . Re . 026 . 0
,
`
.

·
o
þ
Av
Nu
µ
µ
•Good To Predict within 20%
•Conditions: L/D > 10
0.6 < Pr < 16,700
Re > 20,000
•
For turbulent flow
Experimental
Apparatus
• Two copper concentric pipes
•Inner pipe (ID = 7.9 mm, OD = 9.5 mm, L = 1.05 m)
•Outer pipe (ID = 11.1 mm, OD = 12.7 mm)
•Thermocouples placed at 10 locations along exchanger, T1 through T10
Hot Flow
Rotameters
Temperature
Indicator
Cold Flow
rotameter
Heat
Controller
Switch for concurrent
and countercurrent
flow
Temperature
Controller
0
50
100
150
200
250
150 2150 4150 6150 8150 10150 12150
Pr^X Re^Y
Nus
Examples of Exp. Results
4
4.2
4.4
4.6
4.8
0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
ln (Pr)
ln (Nu)
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
9.8 10 10.2 10.4 10.6 10.8 11
ln (Re)
ln (Nu)
Theoretical trend
y = 0.8002x – 3.0841
Experimental trend
y = 0.7966x – 3.5415
Theoretical trend
y = 0.3317x + 4.2533
Experimental trend
y = 0.4622x – 3.8097
Theoretical trend
y = 0.026x
Experimental trend
y = 0.0175x – 4.049
Experimental Nu = 0.0175Re
0.7966
Pr
0.4622
Theoretical Nu = 0.026Re
0.8
Pr
0.33
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
0 1 2 3 4
Velocity in the core tube (ms
1
)
Heat Transfer Coefficient Wm
2
K

hi (W/m2K)
ho (W/m2K)
U (W/m2K)
Effect of core tube velocity on the local and
over all Heat Transfer coefficients