# Automata and Language Theory

A New Method for Defining Language
Is characteristically a three step process We specify some basic objects in the set We give rules for constructing more objects in the set from the ones we already know We declare that no objects except those constructed in this way are allowed

A New Method for Defining Language
Example
Suppose that we are trying to define the set of

positive even integers for someone who knows about arithmetic, but has never heard of the even numbers.

EVEN is the set of all positive who numbers divisible by 2

A New Method for Defining Language

EVEN is the set of all 2n where n = 1 2 3 3…

by recursive definition:

The set EVEN is defined by these three rules: Rule 1 2 is EVEN Rule 2 If x is EVEN, then so is x+2 Rule 3 The only elements in the set EVEN are those that can be produced from the two rules above

A New Method for Defining Language
To prove that 14 is even  By Rule 1, we know that 2 is in EVEN  Then by Rule 2, we know that 2+2 is also in EVEN  Again by Rule 2, we know that since 4 has just been shown to e in EVEN, 4+2=6 is also in EVEN  The fact that 6 is in EVEN means that when we apply Rule 2, we deduce that 6+2=8 is in EVEN too ……..  And, at last, by applying Rule 2, yet again, to the number 12, we conclude that 12+2=14 is, indeed in EVEN

A New Method for Defining Language
The set EVEN is defined by these two rules:

Rule 1 2 is in EVEN Rule 2 If x and y are both in EVEN, then so is x+y

A New Method for Defining Language
Prove that 14 is in EVEN in fewer steps:

By  By  By  By  By

rule rule rule rule rule

1, 2, 2, 2, 2,

2 is EVEN x=2, y=2, x=2, y=4, x=4, y=4, x=6, y=8,

x+y=4 is in EVEN x+y=6 is in EVEN x+y=8 is in EVEN x+y=14 is in EVEN

A New Method for Defining Language
Example

The following is a recursive definition of the positive integers Rule 1 1 is in INTEGERS Rule 2 If x is in INTEGERS, the so is x+1 (not including negatives)

A New Method for Defining Language
Rule 1 1 is in INTEGERS Rule 2 If both x and y are in INTEGERS, then so are x+y and x-y Since 1-1=0 and for all positivex, o-x=-x, we see that negative integers an zero are all included in this definition

A New Method for Defining Language
The set POLYNOMIAL is defined by these three

rules
Rule 1 Any number is in POLYNOMIAL. Rule 2 The variable x is in POLYNOMIAL. Rule 3 If p and q are POLYNOMIAL, then so are p+q, p-q, (p), & pq Try to prove that 3x2+7x-9 is in POLYNOMIAL

A New Method for Defining Language
Observe how natural the following definition are

Rule 1 x is in L1. Rule 2 If w is any word in L1, then xw is also in L1 L1=x+={x xx xxx ….}

A New Method for Defining Language
Rule 1 ^ is in L4 Rule 2 if w is any word in L4, then xw is also in l4 L4=x* ….

A New Method for Defining Language
The definition of Kleene closure might have

benefited from a recursive definition:
Rule 1 If S is a language, then all the words of S are in S* Rule 2 ^ is in S* Rule 3 If x and y are in S*, then so is their concatenation xy.

An important Language: Arithmetic Expression
∑ - {0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 + - * / ( )} What can you say about the following (3+5)+6) 2(/8+9) (3+(4-)8) 2)-(4

An important Language: Arithmetic Expression
Recursive Definition of AE Rule 1 Any Number(+,-,0) is in AE Rule 2 If x is in AE, then so are

Rule 3 If x and y are in AE, then so are:
(i) x + y (if the first symbol in y is not + or – (ii) x - y (if the first symbol in y is not + or – (iii) x*y (iv) x/y (v) x**y (our notation for exponentiation)

An important Language: Arithmetic Expression

Try to prove

(2+4) * (7*(9-3)/4) / 4 * (2+8) - 1
is in AE  Prove that  An arithmetic expression cannot contain the character \$  No AE can begin or end with the symbol /.  No AE can contain the substring //.

Quiz Prove that 78 is in set EVEN using the
following recursive definition: Rule 1 2 and 4 are in EVEN Rule 2 If x is in EVEN, then so x+4 Give the recursive definition for the set POWER-OF-TWO = {1 2 4 8 16……}

An important Language: Arithmetic Expression

An important Language: Arithmetic Expression