Heat Exchangers

B K Kumbhar

Saturday, August 8, 2009

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Presentation points
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Importance & Classification Types of Heat Exchangers in Dairy & Food Industry Selection of Heat Exchangers Indirect Contact Type Heat Direct Contact Type Heat

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Heat Exchanger
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Heating and/or cooling of the process streams during processing Heat transfer between two fluids through a separating wall or by direct contact with each other Classification based on Degree of heat transfer surface compactness Construction features Flow arrangements Number of fluids Heat transfer mechanisms
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In Dairy and Food Industries
Direct Contact Steam Injection Steam infusion Indirect Contact Tubular Plate Jacketed Kettle
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Selection of Heat Exchangers
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Flow Rate of Both the Fluids Heat Sensitivity Terminal Temperatures Types of Fluids Properties of Both Fluids Flow Arrangement Operating Pressure and Temperature Pressure Drop
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Contd

Selection of Heat Exchangers ----contd
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Heat Recovery Fouling Ease of Inspection, Cleaning, Repair & Maintenance Materials of Construction Cost of Heat Exchanger

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Flow Rate of Both the Fluids
Size
Length Width Height Weight

Site Requirement Lifting and Servicing capabilities Inventory Considerations

Sizing of the Heat Exchanger Minimum Pressure Drop Flow Ratio
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Heat Sensitivity
  

Low Hold-up Volume Low Residence Time Low Surface Temperature
Requirements  Good Flow Distribution  High Heat Transfer Coefficient  Small Channel Volume

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Terminal Temperatures

Performance of Heat Exchanger depends on terminal temperatures Heat Transfer Units (HTU) defined as Ratio of * Temperature of one fluid * Mean temperature difference between the fluids Plate heat exchanger > Tubular Heat Exchanger

Up to 4 HTU in case of Plate heat exchanger

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Types of Fluids
 

Liquids Gases

Tubular heat exchanger suitable for condensable gases (steam) Plate heat exchanger suitable for liquids with less than 50000 cP

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Properties of Both Fluids
 

Heat Transfer Calculations Pumping Calculations Viscosity Low viscosity- Plate heat exchanger High viscosity- Scraped surface heat exchanger Thermal conductivity Density Specific heat Thermal diffusivity
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Flow Arrangement
Concurrent – Flow in same direction
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Thermodynamically poor High thermal stresses since large temperature difference at inlet Heat sensitive materials Thermodynamically superior Minimum thermal stresses Maximum heat recovery Least heat transfer area In between the above Design of headers require less space Space is important

Counter current- flow opposite to each other
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Cross flow- Flow perpendicular to each other
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Operating Pressure and Temperature
Mechanical Design
 

Operating Pressure Operating Temperature

Problems of high operating temperature and pressure
  

Vibration Fatigue Thermal stresses, etc.

Plate heat exchanger free from such problems however plate thickness and gasket material limit its application

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Maximum Operating Conditions
Heat Exchanger  Plate heat exchanger  Double pipe  Shell and tube  Scraped surface  Kettle
T, 0C P, kg/cm² 260 540 540 250 260 21 70 105 35 5 Q, l/h 50,00,00 no limit no limit 27,00

-

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Pressure Drop Important for
 

Pumping Cost - proportional to pressure drop Heat Transfer Rate - proportional to pressure drop
Specific pressure drop defined as
 

Pressure drop per unit HTU Used to compare the performance of different heat exchangers

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Heat Recovery
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Conservation of energy- very important Recovery of heat from used/waste process streams Less than 50% in tubular heat exchangers Up to 95% in plate heat exchanger

 

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Fouling
Deposition of solid material- poor conductor of heat
* Decreases heat transfer

* Decreases flow rate * Lead to corrosion * Loss of valuable materials * Affects the design and size of the unit * Affects the production runs

Factors affecting fouling

Velocity- High velocity less fouling
* Shearing force * Laminar layer thickness * Turbulence * Residence time

Surface temperature – important for heat sensitive liquids
- small temperature difference required

Bulk fluid temperature – more fouling in less bulk temperature  Composition Saturday, August 8, 2009

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Ease of Inspection, Cleaning, Repair & Maintenance Requirement PHE Inspection for fouling  Product side a  Media side a Inspection for leakage  Product side a  Media side a Inspection for corrosion  Product side a  Media side a DP b b ST a b/d SS a d Kettle a c/d

b/c a

b/d a

d b

c/d a

a/b b/d

a/d a/dc

a c

a b/c

a: Very good b: Acceptable c: Poor d: Impossible PHE- Plate heat exchanger DP- double pipe ST- shell and tube SS- scraped Saturday, August 8, 2009 19 surface

Ease of Inspection, Cleaning, Repair & Maintenance ------contd
Chemical cleaning  Product side  Media side Manual cleaning  Product side  Media side Extension Repair
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a a

a a

b/c a

a a

a a

a a a a

b c/d b/d b/c

a a/d d b

a d d a

a c/d d a
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Materials of Construction
Material of construction depends on
    

Properties of the fluids such as heat sensitivity, fouling, corrosivity, Operating temperature and pressure Welding ease Availability Conformance to all applicable laws, codes and insurance requirements Cost Stainless steel Aluminum Carbon steel Titanium Graphite Hastalloy
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Materials Gaskets
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Nitryl rubber Teflon

Butyl rubber Compressed asbestos fibers

Cost of Heat Exchanger
 

Optimization based on cost consideration Consider all above factors

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Indirect Contact Type Heat Exchangers Plate heat exchanger  Tubular heat exchangers

   

Double pipe heat exchanger Scraped surface heat exchanger (SSHE) Spiral tube heat exchanger Shell and tube heat exchanger

Jacketed kettle
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Consists of rectangular thin corrugated plates stacked in a frame. Plates pressed against each other between the stationary frame plate and movable pressure plate with compression bolt to form narrow flow channels. Hot and cold streams flow in alternate channels. Corner openings termed as ports
Flow port  Transfer port

Plate Heat Exchanger

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Fluid flow may be diagonal or vertical

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Plate Heat Exchangers
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Construction Ports Corrugations Flow arrangements Advantages Limitations

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Parts of Plate heat exchanger
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Thin corrugated plates Stationary frame plate Movable pressure plate Plate carrying bar Plate guide bar Compression bolt Connecting plate Gasket Inlet and outlet nozzles for each stream
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Plate Heat Exchanger
Stationary frame plate Milk out Hot water in Movable pressure plate Milk in Hot water out Plate carrying bar Compression nut & bolt
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Plate carrying bar

Connecting plate

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Flow Path in Plate Heat Exchanger
Four pass of milk Milk Out Hot Water in Second pass Milk in Hot Water out

First pass

Two pass of hot water
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Gaskets
 

Prevent leakage of liquids Eliminate possibility of mixing Thermal stability Resistance to assuming permanent deformation Good ageing characteristics Low compression set Selection depends on the chemical composition of the process streams and operating temperature.

Criteria for gasket materials
    

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Type of Ports
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Flow Port Transfer Port

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Corrugations
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Inducing turbulence in the process stream Providing reinforcement Plate support points to maintain interplate separation and increasing heat transfer surface area. Trough type Chevron or herringbone type

Patterns
 

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Flow arrangement
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Series – low flow rates and large temp. change Looped – large flow rates and small temperature change Complex – intermediate cases of flow and temperature changeLooped flow

Looped f

Series Flow

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Looped flo

Series flow

Series Flow

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Looped Flow Pattern

Looped

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Parts of a Plate
Gasket Transfer port Flow port

Flow distribution triangles

Gasket

Corrugations Transfer port Flow port
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Herringbone (Chevron type, 3D)

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Flow pattern

Looped flow

Series Flow

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Overall heat transfer coefficient higher  Effective mean temp difference usually higher  Less cost  Occupies less floor and head space – low hold-up volume gives quicker start up and faster response to control function changes.  Less massive foundation  Less fouling  Disassembled easily  Variety of ways for assembling  Multiple duties like heating, cooling, regeneration etc  Intermixing prevented by double gasket. Saturday, August 8, 2009 39  Over 90 % heat recovery.

ADVANTAGES

Limitations

Cannot withstand operating pressures much in excess of 21 kg/cm2 (300 psi) Gaskets should be elastomeric. So, maximum operating temp. usually limited to 2600C. For mild steel construction, plate heat exchangers are costlier. Moderate pressure loss required to produce economic designs to handle large quantities of low density fluids such as vapors and gases.
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Tubular Heat Exchangers
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Double/triple pipe Shell and tube Spiral tube Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHE)

Common factor among former three is that tube of relatively smaller diameter housed in shell. SSHE is basically large double pipe heat exchanger with scraper inside the inner tube
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Double Pipe Heat Exchangers Simplest Type of Heat Exchanger
Pair of single lengths of pipe smaller diameter pipe -within another pipe from a number of lengths arranged in a vertical row Welding of the outer jacket to the inner pipe is done or A packed stuffing box -permit differential movement - removal of inner pipe for cleaning or maintenance purpose. 5-10 cm pipe size shells 1.9-6.35 cm inner tubes
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Application of Double Pipe HE

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Can be used for liquid-liquid or steam/gasliquid duties with high μ Suitable for low flow rates high temp. ranges withstand high pressure Difficult to inspect for fouling or leakage.

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Low flow rates High temperature range High pressure because of small diameter pipes Space requirement - high as compared to plate heat exchanger Ceiling or wall mounted thereby taking up no floor space. Flow distribution is no problem In-place-cleaning - very easily Most difficult to inspect for fouling or leakage.
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Repair - not difficult very close temperature approaches- true counter current flow Sometimes three tubes - concentrically - triple pipe heat exchanger annuals between the innermost and intermediate tubes concurrently or counter currently to preheat the liquid food material before evaporation or spray drying
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Space requirement normally high No problem in flow distribution and in-place cleaning, repair no problem. Three tubes mounted concentrically to form triple pipe heat exchanger. Velocity in heater is high and excellent heat transfer rates possible. In double pipe type, heat recovery or regeneration not possible, while the triple tube arrangement makes possible the use of efficient and compact regenerative hook-up. Typical application – dairy and food industry

To preheat the liquid food material before evaporation or spray drying.
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Scraped surface heat exchanger (SSHE)

 

Also called votator or swept surface heat exchanger. Two concentric scraper fitted cylinders with two or more scraper blades. Outer cylinder covered with insulating material Stainless steel sheet used to cover the insulation to protect from mechanical damage. Inner cylinder made of SS or MS lined with chrome-nickel plating.
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Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger

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Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger

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Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger

Fixed-clearance scrapers small clearance between the blades and the heat transfer surface highly abrasive products such as sugar/fat mixtures Variable-clearance scraper- floating blades

Forced toward the wall by, springs, centrifugal force, and hydrodynamic action of the fluid scrape, sweep, or cut the product film -minimum fouling and burn on takes place mechanically-induced turbulence, film removal, product mixing HTC compare very well with those of plate heat exchanger

Heat transfer rate increases
 

Product velocity at the heat transfer surface speed of the scraper, number of rows of blades. It does not depend on the product flow rate The product requires whipping and aerating - ice-cream freezers - beaters
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Operations

Liquid-full operation filled completely with liquid product sensible heat transfer Thin-film operation does not run full phase change

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Diameters 7.5-25 cms And lengths 120-180 cms Viscosity up to 100000 cp Solids contents upto 75 per cent Temperatures -180 to 30 C

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Ice cream, condensed milk, baby foods, etc. Or for pasteurization or sterilization Space requirement -high or low depending upon the type of unit. Vertical installation

-less floor area- difficult to inspect for cleaning needs double unit size for removal of rotor shaft if floor mounted -easy to lower down for inspection. .

Horizontal installation

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Costliest among all heat exchangers Moving parts, seals and blades -proper maintenance Lubrication -manufacturers instructions. Blades - sharpened as they get worn.

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Scrapers
• • •

Scrape the film continuously. More heat transfer rate. Minimum fouling and burning Used for highly abrasive products (sugar/fat mixtures) Floating blades forced towards wall by springs, centrifugal force, hydrodynamic action of the fluid or combination of these factors.
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Fixed clearance scrapers

Variable clearance scrapers

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SSHE can be used for two modes of operations Liquid-full operation
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Vessel completely filled with product Almost always sensible heat transfer Does not run full, but liquid flows in a thin film down the vessel device Sensible + latent heat transfer

Thin-film operation
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Spiral tube heat exchanger
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One or more spirally wound tubes Heat transfer higher Turbulence induced is more due to higher velocity Natural scrubbing of the tube Production cycle extended for a longer time. Fewer cleaning cycles required. Large amount of space accommodated. Used for aseptic production of liquid and semisolid food products @ 75 – 15000 lit/hr
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• •

• •

Diameters 7.5 to 25 cm, lengths 120 to 180 cm Continuous heating or freezing (μ = 1,00,000 cP and solid content up to 75 %) Temperature range 1800 to -300C Manufacturing of ice cream, condensed milk, baby foods etc. Space requirement high or low depending upon type of unit Costliest among all others
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Considerable amount of surface can be accommodated in a given space by spiraling. Thermal expansion -not a problem Cleaning of the outer surface of the tube is difficult. Used for aseptic production of liquid and semisolid food products

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Spiral Tube Heat Exchanger

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Round tubes housed in a cylindrical shell  One fluid flows inside the tube while the other fluid flows across and along the tubes  Major components Tubes  Shell  Baffles  Tube sheets  Pass divider  Channel cover  Tube side and shell side nozzles The tubes  Arranged on a square pitch- easily cleaned  Triangular pitch pattern -more number of tubes Saturday, August 8, 2009

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

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Shell and tube heat exchangers

Tubes arranged on square or triangular pitch pattern
 

Square pattern – easy cleaning Triangular pattern – more no. of tubes to a given shell diameter.

Material – usually low carbon steel, low alloy steel. SS, Cu etc. Baffles
Support tubes, prevent vibration and guide shell side fluid back and forth  Increase in velocity, turbulences, degree of mixing Saturday, August 8, 2009 63 and high heat transfer coefficient.

 

Shell and tube heat exchanger -widely used in process industries - relatively easy construction -wide range of duties-mechanically rugged -withstand normal shop fabrication stresses, shipping and field erection stresses and normal operating conditions Can be reasonably easily cleaned Gaskets and tubes, which are most subject to failure, can be replaced easily Low solids content and viscosities normally less than 10000 cps Often used for non-food processing steps such as chilling the brine for refrigeration or as hot water heaters Tubular evaporators - shell and tube heat exchanger
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Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

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Shell

Roundness of the shell -important for inserting and fixing the baffles of maximum diameter impingement baffle -below the shell-side inlet nozzle- prevent the impact of fluid on the tubes, which may lead to erosion, cavitation, and/or vibration of tubes Tube bundle- tubes, tube sheets and baffles from the shell for inspection and cleaning Tube-side channels and nozzles control - tube-side fluid into and out of the tubes Channel cover -round plate fitted to the channel flanges - removed for tube inspection
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To support the tubes in proper position during assembly and operation  To prevent vibration of the tubes caused by flow induced eddies  To guide the shell side fluid back and forth across the tube field  Increase in velocity, turbulences, degree of mixing and heat transfer coefficient Types of Baffles  Transverse baffles are placed along the length of tubes  Longitudinal baffles
Minimum spacing between baffles -one-fifth of the shell diameter
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Baffles

A pass divider
 

Plate fitted into one or both the channel Pass dividers - fitted tightly to prevent the leakage of fluid from one pass to another Tube side passes – may be more

 

Shell side passes – restricted to one- two Sometimes more than two.

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Fluid choice

Fouling and corrosion characteristics of the fluid, permissible pressure drop across the heat exchanger, constructional cost, etc. Corrosive and more susceptible for fouling fluids tubes In shell-side fluid -more pressure drop

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Types of baffles:
• • 

Transverse Longitudinal Minimum spacing between baffles 1/5 th of shell diameter, but not less than 5 cm.

Choice of fluid depends on:
   

Fouling and corrosion characteristics Permissible pressure drop Constructional cost etc. Corrosive and fouling producing fluids in tubes

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Jacketed Kettle
     

Semispherical container and a jacket cylindrical container with jacket - jacketed vat. The steam or hot water may be used as a heating medium Hot water- spray- more efficient- rapidly moving thin film Flooded into the heating/cooling medium passage 40 percent saving in heating time by spray method agitator or scraper- uniform heating and increase rate of heat transfer small capacity plant production of small quantities of material in large capacity plants not efficient as compared to other types of heat exchangers the initial cost of the exchanger is low. Operation and maintenance are easy No skilled worker is needed. energy consumption of the heat exchanger is more
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      

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JACKETED KETTLE
Spray or flooded type  40 % saving in heating time in spray  Agitator for uniform heating  Scraper when concentration of liquid done  Operation and maintenance easier.  Not efficient as compared to others  Initial cost is low  Volume /heat transfer area high  Area/volume low Saturday, August 8, 2009

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  

   

Agitator or scraper- uniform heating and increase rate of heat transfer Cylindrical container with jacket - jacketed vat. Small capacity plant Production of small quantities of material in large capacity plants Not efficient as compared to other types of heat exchangers The initial cost of the exchanger is low Operation and maintenance are easy Energy consumption of the heat exchanger is more

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DIRECT CONTACT TYPE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Steam injection

Steam into process fluid Process fluid spread into vessel with steam atmosphere

Steam infusion

Employed in dairy industry for UHT processing  Temp. rises very rapidly to 135-1500C.  Heat transfer mainly due to condensation of steam resulting in 10 % dilution of the product. Saturday, August 8, 2009 75

Advantages of Direct contact HE

  

Very rapid heating and cooling Less scaling permits longer production runs Low oxygen content of final product

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Limitations/disadvantages of Direct Contact HE
 

Direct heating more complex Requires
  

more plant components, additional controls and high quality steam (culinary steam) initial and operating cost

Relatively expensive in
 

No regenerative heating above the temperature at which steam is mixed
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Direct Contact Type
 

   

Steam injection - steam -suitable nozzle -liquid Steam infusion heat exchangers - spread into a vessel with steam atmosphere Raises the temperature very rapidly to 135 - 150. Heat transfer - condensation of steam 10% dilution of the product Vacuum chamber- evaporatively cooled and the condensed water is flushed off. Adjustment of the vacuum - necessary removal of water and simultaneously controls the dry matter content of the final produce.

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Advantages of Direct Contact HE

Very rapid heating and cooling and consequently a low total temperature load on the product. Less scaling in the equipment as compared to indirect heating which also permits longer production runs because of less frequent cleaning cycles. Low oxygen content of the final product. Expansion cooling does not only remove water but also dissolved air (02) resulting in an oxygen content of the final product (milk) of about or less than 0.1 ppm.

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It is not possible to use regenerative heating above the temperature at which steam is mixed with the product.

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Steam Injection System

Injection requires steam pressures higher than those of the product in the infuser.

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Steam Infusion System

With infuser, any pool of product in the bottom of heating vessel contributes much of the holding period needed for sterilizing effect. Very close control of product level at this point is necessary if the process is not to be variable

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Temperature-Time Profile in UHT Process

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Temperature-Time Profile

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