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# Signal Flow Graph Representation of

System
Block diagram are very convenient in representing
control system.
.For complicated systems, the block diagram
reduction for finding the overall transfer function
become tedious.
alternative approach : Signal Flow Graph
Definition: It is a graphical representation of
relationship between the variables (signals).
It comprise of a network in which nodes represents
different variables of the system, these nodes are
connected by directed branches.
Terms used in the concept of signal flow graph:
(1) Node
Represent a system variable which is equal to sum
of incoming branches multiply by its respective
gain.
Outgoing branches from a node do affect the value
of that node variable.
(2) Branch
A signal travel along branch from one node to
another in the direction indicated by the branch
arrow.
In the process of flow, the signal gets multiplied by
the gain or the transmittance
(3) Input Node or Source
It is a node with only outgoing branches.
(4) Output node or Sink
It is a node with only incoming branches
This condition is not always met.
An additional branch with unit gain may be
introduced in order to meet the above condition.
(5) Path
It is the traversal of connected branches in the
direction of the branch arrows such that no node is
traversed more than once.

(6) Forward Path
It is path from the input node to the output path when
no node is encountered twice.
(7) Forward Path Gain
It is product of branch gains in the forward path.
(8) Loop
It is path which originates and terminates at same
node.
(9) Loop Gain
It is the product of branches gains encountered in
traversing the loop
(10) Non-touching Loops
Loops are said to be non-touching if they to do not
posses any common node.
Masons Gain Formula
According to Masons Gain Formula, the overall gain
is expressed as:

where

=
A
A
=
k
i
i i
P s G
1
1
) (
.
. ) (
.
.
loops touching non r of n combinatio
possible m of product gain P
system the of Gain Overall s G
path f orward i the of gain path P
paths f orward of number k
th
mr
th
i

=
=
=
=
This is called as determinant of the path.

( )
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

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|

+
+ = A
loop touching non three of
n combinatio possible all of product gain of sum
loop touching non two of
n combinatio possible all of product gain of sum
loops individual all of gains loop of sum 1

+ + = A
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
P P P P
4 3 2 1
1
. path forward i the touching not is which
graph the of part that for of value The
th
i
A = A