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Multirate Digital Signal

Processing
Multirate Digital Signal
Processing
What is multirate signal processing?
Processing of digital signal with
different sampling rates in the system.

Sampling Rate Conversion
Multirate Digital Signal
Processing
Up-sampler - Used to increase
the sampling rate by an integer
factor

Down-sampler - Used to decrease
the sampling rate by an integer
factor
Basic Sampling Rate Alteration Devices
Why sample rate conversion? (I)
Compatibility: convert sample frequencies of
different stds.
Efficiency: easier data processing
(computationally more efficient), less storage,
lower transmission speed,
All-digital: Change sample frequency in an
efficient manner
Cost: Avoid need for expensive analogue anti-
aliasing filters
Multirate Digital Signal
Processing
Up-Sampler
Time-Domain Characterization
An up-sampler with an up-sampling
factor L, where L is a positive integer,
develops an output sequence with
a sampling rate that is L times larger
than that of the input sequence x[n]
Block-diagram representation
] [n x
u
L x[n]
] [n x
u
Up-Sampler
Up-sampling operation is implemented by
inserting equidistant zero-valued
samples between two consecutive
samples of x[n]
Input-output relation
1 L

=
=
otherwise , 0
, 2 , , 0 ], / [
] [
L L n L n x
n x
u
Up-Sampler
In practice, the zero-valued samples
inserted by the up-sampler are replaced
with appropriate nonzero values using
some type of filtering process
Process is called interpolation and will be
discussed later
Down-Sampler
Time-Domain Characterization
An down-sampler with a down-sampling
factor M, where M is a positive integer,
develops an output sequence y[n] with a
sampling rate that is (1/M)-th of that of
the input sequence x[n]
Block-diagram representation
M x[n]
y[n]
Down-Sampler
Down-sampling operation is implemented
by keeping every M-th sample of x[n] and
removing in-between samples to
generate y[n]
Input-output relation
y[n] = x[nM]
1 M
Down-Sampler
Figure below shows explicitly the time-
dimensions for the down-sampler
M
) ( ] [ nMT x n y
a
=
) ( ] [ nT x n x
a
=
Input sampling frequency
T
F
T
1
=
Output sampling frequency
'
1
'
T M
F
F
T
T
= =
Up-Sampler
Figure below shows explicitly the time-
dimensions for the up-sampler
Input sampling frequency
T
F
T
1
=

=
=
otherwise 0
, 2 , , 0 ), / ( L L n L nT x
a
L
) ( ] [ nT x n x
a
=
y[n]
Output sampling frequency
'
1
'
T
LF F
T T
= =
Basic Sampling Rate Alteration Devices
The up-sampler and the down-sampler are
linear but time-varying discrete-time systems
Consider a factor-of-M down-sampler defined
by
Its output for an input is
then given by

From the input-output relation of the down-
sampler we obtain
y[n] = x[nM]
] [
1
n y ] [ ] [
0 1
n n x n x =
] [ ] [ ] [
0 1 1
n Mn x Mn x n y = =
)] ( [ ] [
0 0
n n M x n n y =
] [ ] [
1 0
n y Mn Mn x = =
Up-Sampler
Frequency-Domain Characterization
Consider first a factor-of-2 up-sampler
whose input-output relation in the time-
domain is given by


=
=
otherwise ,
, , , ], / [
] [
0
4 2 0 2 n n x
n x
u
Up-Sampler
In terms of the z-transform, the input-
output relation is then given by






=

=

= =
even
] / [ ] [ ) (
n
n
n
n
n
u u
z n x z n x z X 2
2 2
[ ] ( )
m
m
x m z X z

=
= =

Up-Sampler
In a similar manner, we can show that
for a factor-of-L up-sampler

On the unit circle, for , the input-
output relation is given by
) ( ) (
L
u
z X z X =
e j
e z =
) ( ) (
L j j
u
e X e X
e e
=
Up-Sampler
Figure below shows the relation between
and for L = 2 in the
case of a typical sequence x[n]
) (
e j
e X
) (
e j
u
e X
Up-Sampler
As can be seen, a factor-of-2 sampling
rate expansion leads to a compression
of by a factor of 2 and a 2-fold
repetition in the baseband [0, 2t]
This process is called imaging as we
get an additional image of the input
spectrum

) (
e j
e X
Up-Sampler
Similarly in the case of a factor-of-L
sampling rate expansion, there will be
additional images of the input spectrum in
the baseband
Lowpass filtering of removes the
images and in effect fills in the zero-
valued samples in with interpolated
sample values
1 L
1 L
] [n x
u
] [n x
u
Down-Sampler
Frequency-Domain Characterization
Applying the z-transform to the input-output
relation of a factor-of-M down-sampler

we get


The expression on the right-hand side cannot
be directly expressed in terms of X(z)

=

=
n
n
z Mn x z Y ] [ ) (
] [ ] [ Mn x n y =
Down-Sampler
To get around this problem, define a
new sequence :


Then

=
=
otherwise ,
, , , ], [
] [
int
0
2 0 M M n n x
n x
] [
int
n x


=

=

= =
n
n
n
n
z Mn x z Mn x z Y ] [ ] [ ) (
int
) ( ] [
/
int
/
int
M
k
M k
z X z k x
1
= =

=

Down-Sampler
Now, can be formally related to x[n]
through

where periodic train c[n]


A convenient representation of c[n] is given
by

where
] [
int
n x
] [ ] [ ] [
int
n x n c n x =

=
=
otherwise ,
, , , ,
] [
0
2 0 1 M M n
n c

=
=
1
0
1
M
k
kn
M
W
M
n c ] [
M j
M
e W
/ t 2
=
Down-Sampler
Taking the z-transform of
and making use of


we arrive at
] [ ] [ ] [
int
n x n c n x =

=
=
1
0
1
M
k
kn
M
W
M
n c ] [
n
n
M
k
kn
M
n
n
z n x W
M
z n x n c z X

=


|
|
.
|

\
|
= = ] [ ] [ ] [ ) (
int
1
0
1
( )


=

=

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
0
1
0
1 1
M
k
k
M
M
k n
n kn
M
W z X
M
z W n x
M
] [
Down-Sampler
Consider a factor-of-2 down-sampler
with an input x[n] whose spectrum is as
shown below



The DTFTs of the output and the input
sequences of this down-sampler are
then related as
)} ( ) ( {
2
1
) (
2 / 2 / e e e
+ =
j j j
e X e X e Y
Down-Sampler
Now implying
that the second term in the
previous equation is simply obtained by
shifting the first term to the right
by an amount 2t as shown below
) ( ) (
2 / ) 2 ( 2 / t e e
=
j j
e X e X
) (
2 / e

j
e X
) (
2 / e j
e X
Down-Sampler
The plots of the two terms have an overlap,
and hence, in general, the original shape
of is lost when x[n] is down-sampled
as indicated below
) (
e j
e X
Down-Sampler
This overlap causes the aliasing that takes
place due to under-sampling
There is no overlap, i.e., no aliasing, only if

Note: is indeed periodic with a
period 2t, even though the stretched
version of is periodic with a period
4t
2 / 0 ) ( t > e =
e
for
j
e X
) (
e j
e X
) (
e j
e Y
Down-Sampler
For the general case, the relation between
the DTFTs of the output and the input of a
factor-of-M down-sampler is given by


is a sum of M uniformly
shifted and stretched versions of
and scaled by a factor of 1/M

=
t e e
=
1
0
/ ) 2 (
) (
1
) (
M
k
M k j j
e X
M
e Y
) (
e j
e Y
) (
e j
e X
Down-Sampler
Aliasing is absent if and only if

as shown below for M = 2
2 / for 0 ) ( t > e =
e j
e X
M for e X
j
/ 0 ) ( t > e =
e
Cascade Equivalences
Two cascade equivalences are shown
below
L ] [n x
] [
2
n y
) (
L
z H
L
] [n x
] [
2
n y
) (z H

M ] [n x
] [
1
n y
) (z H
M
] [n x
) (
M
z H
] [
1
n y

Cascade equivalence #1
Cascade equivalence #2
Filters in Sampling Rate
Alteration Systems
The bandwidth of a critically sampled
signal must be reduced by lowpass
filtering before its sampling rate is
reduced by a down-sampler to avoid
aliasing
Likewise, the zero-valued samples
introduced by an up-sampler must be
interpolated by lowpass filtering to more
appropriate values for an effective
sampling rate increase
Filter Specifications
Since up-sampling causes periodic
repetition of the basic spectrum, the
unwanted images in the spectra of the up-
sampled signal must be removed by
using a lowpass filter H(z), called the
interpolation filter, as indicated below


The above system is called an interpolator
] [n x
u
L ] [n x
] [n y
) (z H
] [n x
u
Filter Specifications
On the other hand, prior to down-
sampling, the signal v[n] should be
bandlimited to by means
of a lowpass filter, called the decimation
filter, as indicated below to avoid aliasing
caused by down-sampling

The above system is called a decimator
M / t e <
M
] [n x ) (z H
] [n y
Interpolation Filter
Specifications
If we pass x[n] through a factor-of-L up-
sampler generating , the relation
between the Fourier transforms of x[n] and
are given by

It therefore follows that if is passed
through an ideal lowpass filter H(z) with a
cutoff at t/L and a gain of L, the output of
the filter will be precisely y[n]
] [n x
u
] [n x
u
) ( ) (
L j j
u
e X e X
e e
=
] [n x
u
Interpolation Filter
Specifications
If is the highest frequency that needs
to be preserved in x[n], then

Summarizing the specifications of the
lowpass interpolation filter are thus given
by
c
e
L
c p
/ e e =

s s
s
=
t e t
e e
e
L
L L
e H
c
j
/ ,
/ ,
) (
0
Decimation Filter Specifications
In a similar manner, we can develop the
specifications for the lowpass decimation
filter that are given by



The design of the filter H(z) is a standard
IIR or FIR lowpass filter design problem

s s
s
=
t e t
e e
e
M
M
e H
c
j
/ ,
/ ,
) (
0
1
The FIR filter is realized using direct form
To avoid unnecessary calculations the decimator
is replaced with efficient transversal structure.



For the polyphase structure
] [ * ] [ ) (
1
0
n x n p n y
m m
M
m

=
=
Polyphase Decomposition
] [ ] [ ) (
1
0
n x m h n y
m
N
m

=
=
Polyphase Decomposition
Decomposition of H(z)=hm z
-m
in blocks of M:
H (z) = ... + h(M )zM + h(M + 1) z M 1 + ... + h(1) z1
+ h(0)z0 + h(1) z1 + ... + h(M 1) z(M 1)
+ h(M )zM + h(M + 1) z(M +1) + ... + h(2M 1) z(2M 1)
+ h(2M )z2M + h(2M + 1) z(2M +1) + ... + h(3M 1) z(3M 1) + ...
= z0[... + h(0) z0 + h(M ) zM + ...] + z1[... + h(1) + h(M + 1) zM + ...]
+ z2[... + h(2) + h(M + 2) zM + ...] + ...
+ z(M 1) [... + h(M 1) + h(2M 1) zM + ...]

H (z) = z Pi z
i
i=0
M 1
( )
M
where Pi (z) =
n=
z h(nM + i)
n
+
Polyphase Decomposition
Implementation of Decimation
Using noble identity:






Operations performed at Operations at low rate
high rate more efficient

Using commutator:
Implementation of Decimation
one input per D pulses;
counter-clockwise rotation
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