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Information and Communication Technologies

Lesson 2. How do computers work?

UNESCO ICTLIP Module 1. Lesson 2

Rationale
The lesson will introduce you to the computer. our !nowled"e #$out the elements o% the computer #nd how they wor! will en#$le you to e#sily underst#nd the lessons on h#rdw#re& so%tw#re #nd networ!s.

UNESCO ICTLIP Module 2 1. Lesson 2

Scope

(h#t is # computer) (h#t #re the elements o% # computer system) (h#t #re the di%%erent types o% computer systems) (h#t #re the components o% # d#t# processin" cycle) (h#t is the role o% # computer in the d#t# processin" cycle) (h#t #re some trends in the de*elopment o% computers)

UNESCO ICTLIP Module ' 1. Lesson 2

Learning Outcomes
,y the end o% this lesson& you should $e #$le to .escri$e how computers process in%orm#tion List the elements o% # computer system Identi%y the di%%erent types o% computer systems #nd their uses E/pl#in the d#t# processin" cycle .e%ine the role o% computers in the d#t# processin" cycle ,e #w#re o% de*elopment trends in ICT
UNESCO ICTLIP Module + 1. Lesson 2

What is a computer?
0 computer is # m#chine with electronic #nd electromech#nic#l p#rts. It is pro"r#mm#$le #nd is c#p#$le o% per%ormin" the %ollowin" %unctions 0ccept d#t# 1input2 Process d#t# 3ener#te output 1in%orm#tion ) Store d#t#4in%orm#tion 5etrie*e4send d#t#4in%orm#tion
UNESCO ICTLIP Module 1. Lesson 2 5

Development of computers

The $e"innin" o% the commerci#l computer #"e $e"#n on 7une 1+& 1891 with the deli*ery o% UNI:0C;;Uni*ers#l 0utom#tic Computer to the U.S. ,ure#u o% Census Prior to this& howe*er& Ch#rles ,#$$#"e in*ented the .i%%erence En"ine #nd concei*ed o% #nother m#chine c#lled 0n#lytic#l En"ine. The l#tter h#d #ll the components o% the computer input& output& processin" #nd stor#"e. ,#$$#"e is c#lled the %#ther o% computers.
UNESCO ICTLIP Module 6 1. Lesson 2

What are the so-called computer generations?

=irst "ener#tion& 1891;189>- :#cuum tu$es were used #s the intern#l computer components& punched c#rds #nd m#"netic t#pes %or storin" d#t#& #nd m#chine l#n"u#"e %or pro"r#mmin". Second "ener#tion& 1898;186+- Tr#nsistors repl#ces *#cuum tu$es& #ssem$ly l#n"u#"e #nd hi"h le*el l#n"u#"es repl#ced m#chine l#n"u#"e& #nd the remo*#$le dis! p#c! repl#ced punched c#rds. Tr#nsistors en#$led m#nu%#cturers to produce sm#ller computers.
UNESCO ICTLIP Module < 1. Lesson 2

Generations continued!

Third "ener#tion& 1869;18<?- Inte"r#ted circuits ;;complete electronic circuits on # silicon chip were de*eloped. ICs led to the production o% e*en sm#ller computers c#lled mini computers. So%tw#re $ec#me more sophistic#ted #nd inter#cti*e processin" possi$le =ourth "ener#tion& 18<1;present. The microprocessor or computer on # chip w#s de*eloped. This m#de PCs& #nd other #pplic#tions possi$le 1c#lcul#tors& $#n!in"&...2 =i%th "ener#tion& present #nd $eyond ; recent #nd emer"in" technolo"ies& i.e. *oice reco"nition& #rti%ici#l intelli"ence& neur#l systems& @u#ntum computers&A2

UNESCO ICTLIP Module > 1. Lesson 2

"lements of a computer s#stem

1. People ; the most import#nt p#rt #nd $ene%ici#ry o% # computer system& "ener#lly c#te"oriBed #s either end;users or de*elopers 2. Procedures ; #re descriptions o% how thin"s #re done& i.e. m#nu#ls& document#tions& A '. .#t#4In%orm#tion ; r#w %#cts 1d#t#2 #nd processed d#t# 1in%orm#tion2 th#t #re used to produce the desired result

UNESCO ICTLIP Module 8 1. Lesson 2

"lements of a computer s#stem

+. C#rdw#re ; the physic#l element o% # computer system c#te"oriBed #ccordin" to the $#sic oper#tions they per%orm- input& processin"& output& stor#"e #nd communic#tions. 9. So%tw#re ; pro*ides the step $y step instructions th#t tell the computer wh#t to do. 3ener#lly so%tw#re is di*ided into system so%tw#re #nd #pplic#tion so%tw#re. 6. Communic#tions ; re%ers to the electronic tr#ns%er o% d#t# %rom one pl#ce to #nother
UNESCO ICTLIP Module 1? 1. Lesson 2

What are the different t#pes of computer s#stems?

In "ener#l& computers #re sorted #ccordin" to physic#l siBe #nd processin" power. The di%%erent types #re- Supercomputer M#in%r#me& Minicomputer& Microcomputer 1.es!top&L#ptop& Note$oo!& P#lmtop2& Microcontroller
UNESCO ICTLIP Module 11 1. Lesson 2

Computers represent d#t# #s two;st#te systems. This me#ns th#t the computer reco"niBes only two num$ers& ? #nd 1. L#r"er num$ers& letters #nd speci#l ch#r#cters #re %ormed usin" com$in#tions o% ? #nd 1. E#ch o% these two num$ers is c#lled # bit %rom the words bin#ry di"it. The com$in#tion o% $its to %orm me#nin"%ul ch#r#cters or num$ers is c#lled # byte.
UNESCO ICTLIP Module 12 1. Lesson 2

$o% is data represented in the computer?

What coding schemes are used to form meaningful &#tes of data?

There #re usu#lly > $its in # $yte. The codin" scheme 0SCII 10s;!ey2 #nd 0SCII;> or e/tended 0SCII h#s $een #dopted #s # st#nd#rd $y the US "o*ernment #nd $y computer m#nu%#cturers. 0SCII c#n h#*e 12> com$in#tions o% < $its e#ch while 0SCII;> c#n h#*e #s m#ny #s 1296 com$in#tions
UNESCO ICTLIP Module 1' 1. Lesson 2

$o% is data processed into information?


Input .#t# 0uthor Title Imprint Su$Dect C#ll No. 0ccession No. Process Output In%orm#tion C#t#lo"in" Process C#t#lo" 5ecord =ilin" Process C#rd C#t#lo" Stor#"e UNESCO ICTLIP Module 1+ 1. Lesson 2

The Information 'rocessing C#cle

(e% Document

Data Input

'rocess

Output

Document

Stored Data
UNESCO ICTLIP Module 19 1. Lesson 2

What is the role of computers in the information c#cle?


0ccept d#t# throu"h input de*ices Process d#t# usin" microprocessors Store d#t# %or inter#cti*e use in the 50M #nd %or lon"er periods o% stor#"e in the 5OM #nd h#rd dis!s Output d#t# throu"h output de*ices.
UNESCO ICTLIP Module 16 1. Lesson 2

What are the advantages of using computers for data processing?

=#ster d#t# input& processin" #nd retrie*#l Tireless;;c#n wor! 2+ hours # d#y& < d#ys # wee! Less prone to error Produce output re@uirements e#sily Could send #nd retrie*e d#t# %rom other computers i% in # networ!
UNESCO ICTLIP Module 1< 1. Lesson 2

What are some disadvantages of using computers?


5e@uire s!illed m#npower %or desi"n #nd pro"r#mmin" #nd d#t# encodin" 5e@uire electricity 5e@uire #ir conditionin" %or non;stop wor! E/pensi*e to #c@uire #nd m#int#in 5e@uire %re@uent up"r#de due to %#st de*elopments in h#rdw#re #nd so%tw#re 5e@uire re"ul#r st#%% tr#inin"
UNESCO ICTLIP Module 1> 1. Lesson 2

What are some general trends in computers?


MooreEs L#w- Computin" power dou$les #ppro/im#tely e*ery 1> months =#ster processors ,i""er stor#"e c#p#city ,i""er memory St#nd #loneFFFNetwor!FFF.istri$uti*e computin" So%tw#re $lo#t Lower cost

UNESCO ICTLIP Module 18 1. Lesson 2

What are some general trends in hard%are?

.ownsiBin"-

M#in%r#me

FFF PCFFPoc!et PC

5i"ht siBin" Incre#sin" memory

50M 1M, to #t le#st 296 M, C#rd dis! 1? M, to 2? 3,

Incre#sin" stor#"e

.ecre#sin" cost Incre#sin" processor speed

PC GT to Pentium +

UNESCO ICTLIP Module 2? 1. Lesson 2

What are some general trends in soft%are?


More sophistic#ted so%tw#re ,i""er stor#"e re@uirement ,i""er memory re@uirement More user %riendly.OS

to (indows

UNESCO ICTLIP Module 21 1. Lesson 2

Conclusion
Computers #re reli#$le #nd e%%icient tools %or d#t# processin" #nd in%orm#tion retrie*#l.There #re #d*#nt#"es #nd dis#d*#nt#"es in usin" them. The e%%iciency o% these tools is dependent on the speci%ic#tions o% the computer h#rdw#re& the so%tw#re& d#t#$#se desi"n #nd the user.
UNESCO ICTLIP Module 22 1. Lesson 2