Magnetic Resonance Imaging

MRI
Magnetic Resonance Imaging; was also called Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging.  MRI is a medical device that uses a magnetic field and the natural resonance of atoms in the body to obtain images of human tissues.

Dr. Raymond Damadian - Indomitable  July 3, 1977 – first MRI exam ever performed on a human being

Dr Damadian with the history making prototype of Dr Damadian’s MRI scanner

MRI scan

Giant cube

◦ 7 ft tall by 7 ft wide by 10 ft long
◦ Horizontal tube running through the magnet from front to back


MRI Machine

Bore of the magnet

Exact center or isocenter of the magnetic field

Magnetic Resonance

Magnet
◦ Resistive ◦ Permanent ◦ Superconducting

Hydrogen atoms
◦ Has a single proton and a large magnetic moment ◦ Has a strong tendency to line up in the direction of the magnetic field

◦ Majority of the protons will cancel out each other

Resonance
◦ MRI machine applies RF pulses that is only specific to the hydrogen ◦ The pulses causes the protons in that area to absorb the energy required to make a spin or precess in a different direction ◦ Larmour frequency

Gradient magnets
◦ they alter the main magnetic field on a very local level. Which means that we can pick exactly which area we want a picture of.

Imaging
◦ When the RF pulse is turned off, the hydrogen protons begin to slowly return to their natural alignment within the magnetic field and release their excess stored energy. When they do this, they give off a signal that the coil now picks up and sends to the computer system. What the system receives is mathematical data that is converted, through the use of a Fourier transform, into a picture that we can put on film.

Advanatages
       

Diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS) Diagnosing tumours of the pituitary gland and brain Diagnosing infections in the brain, spine or joints Visualizing torn ligaments in the wrist, knee and ankle Visualizing shoulder injuries Diagnosing tendonitis Evaluating masses in the soft tissues of the body Evaluating bone tumours, cysts and bulging or herniated discs in the spine Diagnosing strokes in their earliest stages

Disadvantages
Pacemakers and other metal implants  Claustrophobic  Machine is very noisy during scan  Patients are required to hold very still for extended periods of time  Very expensive to purchase