Marketing Research

Definition of Marketing Research
Marketing Research is the systematic gathering, recording and analyzing of data about problems relating to the marketing of goods and services The American Marketing Association

Gather
Record Analyze

Data/ Information

Solve marketing issues

e-mail based research. etc. 1995…to-date Introduction of Computer applications. No research agencies. Developments in On-line research. E. 1941…1980 1981…1995 Rapid advancements in Marketing Research. Statistical packages. Market Research Marketing Research Sanjeewa Thilakarathna .History of MR Before 1915… 1915…1940 Unscientific surveys executed.g. CATI/CAPI’s etc. In 1923. Marketing Research agencies established. Arthur Nielsen founded the AC Nielsen Company. The first book of Marketing Research was published in 1921.

Market Research and Marketing Research There are 4 P’s (Tools or Mix) in Marketing: Product Market Research Research on Customers / Consumers Price Place Promotion Marketing Research .

4.Types of Marketing Research 1. 3. 6. 2. 5. Market Research (Customer/Consumer) Product Research Price Research Sales Promotion and Advertising research Distribution Research Competitor Research .

journals. reports. . Data which is already available in sources such as directories.Data Categorization (Based on Source) Primary Data Secondary Data Data which is gathered newly for a particular purpose. databases. etc.

Primary Data • Following 4 methods could be used to gather primary data Surveys Experiments Observational Depth Research .

) .Advantages / Disadvantages of Primary Data Advantages • Relevance • Accuracy • Sufficiency Disadvantages • Expensive • Time consuming • Expertise may be required (in Data collecting. etc. analysis.

• Data Sources: Internal to Firm Accounting reports Profit & Loss A/C External to Firm Government publications Directories Budgets Previous reports Data bases Journals .Secondary Data • Information collected from data sources such as publications. web-sites (www. journals. • desk research needed to be carried out to gather secondary data.lk). etc.gov. annual reports.

Advantages / Disadvantages of Secondary Data Advantages • Inexpensive • Quick to obtain • Less bias Disadvantages • Sometimes obsolete • May be invalid • Methodology unknown • Unreliable • Sometimes inaccurate .

The Research Process Step 1 –Defining the Research Problem Step 2 – Designing the Research Plan Step 3 – Data Collection Step 4 – Data Analysis & Interpretation Step 5 – Presentation of Findings .

Other specific information .Objectives of the study .Step 1 – Defining the Research Problem Research problem should be problem precisely so that specific objectives could be made.Background .Information Areas Needed . If the problem defined too narrow If the problem defined too broadly Insufficient information collection Excess information collection Research Brief: .Budget .Time constraints .

Sampling method .Decide on the best contact method (face-to-face. Behavioural.) . Questionnaires) If outsourced to a third party (e. e-mails.Step 2 – Developing the Research Plan This involves the following important activities: . telephone. Experimental) . Observational. FGD.g.Decide on your research method (Survey.g. Research Agency).Develop and/or select the Research instrument (e. etc.Decide whether you need to gather Primary or Secondary data . the third party will produce a document called the Research Proposal which normally includes all the above details. .

g.Development of the questionnaire Few important points to consider when developing a questionnaire: • Objective oriented • Should be short but long enough to cover the research objectives • Use relevant questions only • Logical sequence should be maintained • Easy to understand • Use the correct language • Avoid bias / leading questions…. What do you think about the romantic Valentine’s day? Type of questions: 1. Close ended (Dichotomous. Multiple) . Open ended 2. E.

Sampling Probability Sampling Non-probability Sampling Simple Random Sampling Stratified Sampling Cluster Sampling Multi-stage Sampling Systematic Sampling Convenience Sampling Judgment Sampling Quota Sampling Snowball Sampling .

Xteyhfdgh Fdtehys Fegrdhdj ……. ……….. 3.g. E. A sample of respondents will be randomly selected from a population.Simple Random Sampling Simple Random Sampling: Each member in the population gets an equal chance of being chosen. 4. 2. The sample frame is important to obtain the sample. Sample Population 1. Sample Frame – list of all items/elements of the population . 150 customers are selected from a total customer database of 2000 for a customer satisfaction study Population = 2000 Sample = 150 ……….

Stratified Sampling The population is divided into strata’s and simple random samples are drawn from each starta. . + + = Population The sample frame of each strata is important to draw up random samples.

Cluster Sampling The sample is selected from a population which is naturally grouping will be selected.g.). Family is a collection of people (father. mother. After selecting 30 families. Population E. etc. each member of the family is considered as respondents. Selecting 30 families of a village to conduct a product testing. it is a natural cluster. children. So. .

Types of Marketing Research (another categorization) Types of Marketing Research Quantitative Qualitative .

Each branch offers 5 banking products. 2 stage sampling: A bank is operating with 12 branches island-wide.Multi-stage Sampling The sample is selected at different stages from a population. E. It is required to select 5 branches and 3 products at random for a study.g. 20 customers to be interviewed from each product at each branch. Stage 1 – Selecting 5 branches Stage 2 – Selecting 3 products Total Sample= 20 x 3 x 5 = 300 customers Population .

Example: Male Female TOTAL Urban Rural TOTAL 50 30 80 40 20 60 90 50 140 . E.Non-probability Sampling Convenience Sampling: Sample is decided based on the convenience of the researcher. Selecting 10 marketers for a group discussion Judgment Sampling: Sample is selected based on the judgment. Selecting 30 young males for a study on FM Channel for youth. Quota Sampling: Sample is selected by defining quotas.g.g. E.

The Typical Research Procedure Step 1 –Defining the Research Problem Step 2 – Developing the Research Plan Step 3 – Data Collection Step 4 – Data Analysis Step 5 – Presentation of Findings .

etc. have to be considered in this context. reliability.g.e. time constraints. . Research Agency). cost. expertise.Step 3 – Data Collection Data could be gathered by using internal resources (if time and expertise is available) or by outsourcing to an external party (third party. Factors such as confidentiality.

. SAS. Excel. etc.Step 4 – Analyze of Data Various analytical tools are utilized in analysis. Special packages such as SPSS. could be used. Minitab.

Step 5 – Presentation of Findings The information is presented in the form of a report. The report should be: • Simple and reader-friendly • With graphical representations (if possible) • Summary of Findings • Contain an Executive Summary • Explain the methodology adopted • Highlight the limitation in research .

The End Good Luck! .