Cellular Manufacturing

and Facilities Layout
Dr. Richard A. Wysk rwysk@psu.edu http://www.engr.psu.edu/cim

Outline of Activities
• • • • Fundamentals of layout Advantages of various layouts Creating part families Economics of Cellular layout
– scheduling – setup reduction

• Other issues

Readings
• Chapter 18 of Computer Aided Manufacturing, Wang, H.P., Chang, T.C. and Wysk, R. A., 3rd Edition (2004 expected) http://www.engr.psu.edu/cim/active/chapter18.pdf

K.Exercise Readiness Assessment Test A. RAT AS AN INDIVIDUAL. Describe what you think a “process family” is. Which is the best way to cluster products in a manufacturing facility: a) the way a part looks. Why? Open Book / Open Notes . Describe what you think a “part family” is. 3) the way the part is made. b) the function of the part.A.

A. Open Book / Open Notes .K. • Try to chalk out a „best practice‟.Exercise Readiness Assessment Test AS A TEAM. take 5 minutes A. • List the criterion you used. RAT • Compare and discuss the efficiencies and the uses of the various ways to group “stuff” in a shop.

product and cellular manufacturing systems • To form cells in a manufacturing environment • To analyze efficiencies of reduced batch sizes .Objectives • To apply the principles of flow to a complex manufacturing system • To design the layout of process.

Types of Manufacturing Layout • Process Layout • Product Layout • Cellular Layout .

FUNCTIONAL LAYOUTS ARE INEFFICIENT
Lathe Milling Drilling

L L L L

L L L L

M M M A A

M M M
Assembly

D D
Grinding

D D

G G G

G G G

A A

Receiving and Shipping

PROCESS-TYPE LAYOUT

Process Layout Characteristics
• Advantages
– Deep knowledge of the process – Common tooling and fixtures – Most Flexible -- can produce many different part types

• Disadvantages
– – – – Spaghetti flow -- everything gets all tangled up Lots of in-process materials Hard to control inter-department activities Can be difficult to automate

PRODUCT LAYOUT
Part #1 L L M D G A Receiving L Part #2 Part #3 M G G A

L

M

D

Shipping

can only produce one or two parts – Large setup – Duplicate tooling is required for all cells .frequently linked to the next process – Minimal in-process materials – Can be more easily automated • Disadvantages – Inflexible -.Product Layout Characteristics • Advantages – Easy to control -.input control – Minimum material handling -.

CELLULAR LAYOUT Cell #2 D D Cell #3 M I Cell #1 D I L M M I M L L D .

can produce many different part types .Cellular Layout Characteristics • Advantages – Control is simplified – Common tooling and fixtures – Flexible -.a part family?? • Disadvantages – Setup ?? – Need to know about many different processes .

HIGH TRANSFER LINE SPECIAL SYSTEM FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM MANUFACTURING Cells STD. MACHINERY LOW HIGH VOLUME VARIETY . AND GEN.

How are Cells Formed • • • • Good intuition Careful study Group Technology (GT) Production Flow Analysis (PFA) .

Typical Part Families Items that are made with the same equipment Items that look alike A FAMILY OF PARTS .

PRODUCTION FAMILY .

. The processes can be grouped into a cell to minimize material handling requirements.Production Flow Analysis PFA is a technique that uses Operation Routing Summaries as input. These parts can then be assembled into a part family. It clusters the parts that require the same processes.Items that are made with the same equipment .

Items that look alike Most products that look similar are manufactured using similar production techniques. then they should represent a part family. . If parts are grouped because they have similar geometry (about the same size and shape).

Grouping based on geometry or function .

THREE TECHNIQUES TO FORM PART FAMILIES 1. TACIT JUDGMENT OR VISUAL INSPECTION • MAY USE PHOTOS OR PART PRINTS • UTILIZES SUBJECTIVE JUDGMENT 2. CLASSIFICATION & CODING BY EXAMINTAION OF DESIGN & PRODUCTION DATA • MOST COMMON IN INDUSTRY • MOST TIME CONSUMING & COMPLICATED Cont‟d .

PRODUCTION FLOW ANALYSIS • USES INFORMATION CONTAINED ON THE ROUTE SHEET (THEREFORE ONLY MFG.THREE TECHNIQUES TO FORM PART FAMILIES 3. INFO) • PARTS GROUPED BY REQUIRED PROCESSING .

Classification & Coding by Examination of Design & Production Data Many systems have been developed but none is universally applicable and most implementations require some customization .

Identifying Manufacturing Cells Using Production Flow Analysis .

We will discuss 2 algorithms for PFF (Part Family Formation) .Production Flow Analysis • A technique for forming part families based on Operation Routing Summaries • Several methods available.

V2} . D2. Drill2. Mill2. 105} m = {Drill1. 103. M2.Let‟s consider 5 parts (n) and 6 machines (m): n = {101. 104. Vbore2} = {D1. M1. Mill1. V1. Vbore1. 102.

Operation Routing Summary Part No.M1 .10 .12 Ave.V1 D2 -M2.D2 V1 .12 .11 .5 7 .D1 Times (min) 9 . Dem.14 7-9 8 . 101 102 103 104 105 Routing D1 -M1 .V2 .14 5 .V1 D1 -M1 M2 . 100 250 700 100 200 .12 .

M Parts Drill1 Drill2 Mill1 Mill2 VB1 VB2 101 1 0 1 0 1 0 102 0 1 0 1 1 0 103 1 0 1 0 0 0 104 0 1 0 1 0 1 105 1 0 1 0 1 0 M = Machines .Create a PFA matrix.

King’s Algorithm (Rank Order Clustering) Step#1 Calculate the total column width for each column Generate 2i wj = Machine# 1 2 3 4 5 6  2 mi i "i (i) Part# (j) 101 1 0 1 0 1 0 42 102 0 1 0 1 1 0 52 103 1 0 1 0 0 0 10 104 0 1 0 1 0 1 84 105 1 0 1 0 1 0 42 2 i D1 D2 M1 M2 V1 V2 2 4 8 16 32 64 Sum: mi.j * 2i for each column (wj) (wj) .

#2. If Wj is in ascending order. go to step #3. otherwise. rearrange the columns to make Wj fall in an ascending order. 101 103 D1 D2 M1 M2 V1 V2 1 0 1 0 0 0 10 101 1 0 1 0 1 0 42 105 105 1 0 1 0 1 0 42 102 0 1 0 1 1 0 52 104 0 1 0 1 1 0 84 i 14 48 14 48 28 32 wj 102 103 104 .

#3. "i. wi wi = 103 D1 D2 M1 M2 V1 V2 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 101 1 0 1 0 1 0 4 2 m j "j 105 1 0 1 0 1 0 8 102 0 1 0 1 1 0 16 ij Sum: mi. calculate the total row weight.j * 2j wi 14 48 14 48 28 32 104 0 1 0 1 1 0 32 for each row (wi) Generate 2j 2j .

#4. stop. If wi is in ascending order. Otherwise. arrange rows to make Wi ascend. 103 1 1 0 0 0 0 101 1 1 1 0 0 0 105 1 1 1 0 0 0 102 0 0 1 0 1 1 104 0 0 0 1 1 1 D1 M1 V1 V2 D2 M2 V1 V2 M1 D2 V 2 .

#5 Stop and make Cells and Part families 103 1 1 0 0 0 0 101 1 1 1 0 0 0 105 1 1 1 0 0 0 102 0 0 1 0 1 1 104 0 0 0 1 1 1 D1 M1 V1 V2 D2 M2 .

i wi =  M ij a ll j . For I. of positive cells in row.DIRECT CLUSTER ALGORITHM D1 D2 M1 M2 V1 V2 101 1 0 1 0 1 0 102 0 1 0 0 1 0 103 1 0 1 0 1 0 104 0 1 0 1 0 1 105 1 0 1 0 1 0 wi 3 2 3 1 4 1 Step #1. calculate the total no.

Sort rows in descending order of the wi values V1 D1 D2 V1 M 1 D2 M2 M2 V2 D1 101 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 102 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 103 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 104 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 105 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 wi 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 No Change No Change .

wj = m alli ij .Step #2. j j. calculate the total # of positive cell in each column.

Sort columns in ascending order. V1 D1 M1 D2 M2 V2 101 1 1 1 0 0 0 102 1 0 0 1 0 0 103 1 1 1 0 0 0 104 0 0 0 1 1 1 105 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 2 3 3 3 .

Observe Elements of Row 1 V1 D1 M1 D2 M2 V2 102 1 0 0 1 0 0 101 1 1 1 0 0 0 103 1 1 1 0 0 0 104 0 0 0 1 1 1 105 1 1 1 0 0 0 Move Column 105 to the left and push column 104 back . For i = 1 to n. move all columns j where mij = 1 to the left maintaining the order of previous rows.Step #3.

For Rows 1. 103 & 105 to the left and push column 102 back .2 & 3: Move the 1’s to the left and push the columns with the zeroes back Observe Elements of Rows 2 & 3 V1 D1 M1 D2 M2 V2 102 1 0 0 1 0 0 101 1 1 1 0 0 0 103 1 1 1 0 0 0 105 1 1 1 0 0 0 104 0 0 0 1 1 1 Move Columns 101.

Observe Elements of Row 4 V1 D1 M1 D2 M2 V2 101 1 1 1 0 0 0 103 1 1 1 0 0 0 105 1 1 1 0 0 0 102 1 0 0 1 0 0 104 0 0 0 1 1 1 Move Column 102 to the left and push column 101 back .

Observe Elements of Rows 5 & 6 V1 D1 M1 D2 M2 V2 102 1 0 0 1 0 0 101 1 1 1 0 0 0 103 1 1 1 0 0 0 105 1 1 1 0 0 0 104 0 0 0 1 1 1 Move Column 104 to the left and push column 102 back .

V1 D1 M1 D2 M2 V2 104 0 0 0 1 1 1 102 1 0 0 1 0 0 101 1 1 1 0 0 0 103 1 1 1 0 0 0 105 1 1 1 0 0 0 .

103 & 105: No Change can be made!! Observe Elements of Column 102 V1 D1 M1 D2 M2 V2 104 0 0 0 1 1 1 102 1 0 0 1 0 0 101 1 1 1 0 0 0 103 1 1 1 0 0 0 105 1 1 1 0 0 0 Move Row D2 upwards and push row D1 down .Step #4. For j = m to 1. move all rows I. where mij = 1 to the top maintaining the order of the previous columns. wij Observe Elements of Columns 101.

Observe Elements of Column 104 V1 D2 M1 D1 M2 V2 104 0 1 0 0 1 1 102 1 1 0 0 0 0 101 1 0 1 1 0 0 103 1 0 1 1 0 0 105 1 0 1 1 0 0 Move Row D2 to the top and push row V1 down .

Observe Elements of Column 104 D2 V1 M1 D1 M2 V2 104 1 0 0 0 1 1 102 1 1 0 0 0 0 101 0 1 1 1 0 0 103 0 1 1 1 0 0 105 0 1 1 1 0 0 Move Rows M2 & V2 upwards and push row V1 down .

D2 M2 V2 V1 M1 D1 104 1 1 1 0 0 0 102 1 0 0 1 0 0 101 0 0 0 1 1 1 103 0 0 0 1 1 1 105 0 0 0 1 1 1 .

If current matrix is the same as the previous. stop.Step #5. . else to go 3.

Identify Cells or potential Cells D2 M2 V2 V1 M1 D1 104 1 1 1 0 0 0 102 1 0 0 1 0 0 101 0 0 0 1 1 1 103 0 0 0 1 1 1 105 0 0 0 1 1 1 Cell #1 Cell #2 Part Family #1 Part Family #2 .

) .Production Flow Analysis -SCOPEWe learned two (and probably the most common) methods/algorithms for performing a Production Flow Analysis.. There are a host of other algorithms and methods which are used in Academics and in the Industry. (contd.

Tooling Analysis .Production Flow Analysis -Organizational ViewProduction Flow Analysis consists of 5 different analyses: 1. Company Flow Analysis 2. Group Analysis 4. Factory Flow Analysis 3. Line Analysis 5.

• Uses FROM-TO charts and frequency charts and a flow analysis (similar to the one discussed in slides 29 – 41). but presents data in a way that decisions can be made based on a company‟s goal. It aims to simplify the flow of materials between factories. . • Is not a decision making model.Company Flow Analysis • A Planning technique used for the division of large companies into factory components.

machines and facilities into factory sets .CFA (Analysis) Company’s Goals We get a SCHEME for the division of products and components.

Factory Flow Analysis An attempt is made at this stage to find major groups of departments. FFA Methodology ) .. The Goal is to change factories from process organization to product organization and to minimize interdepartmental material flow (Contd. and major families of components which can be completely processed in these departments.

Factory Flow Analysis -Methodology• Study and map the existing flow system • Identify the dominant material flows between shops (or buildings) • Determine the Process Route Number (PRN) for each part • Analyze the part by PRN. • Combine closely associated processes at departments that complete most of the parts they make • If parts are observed to backtrack then such flows are eliminated by minor redeployment of equipment .

Factory Flow Analysis -An Example- .

Loads are calculated for each part family to obtain the equipment requirements for each cell . Operation sequences of the parts that are being produced in a particular shop are analyzed to identify manufacturing cells.Group Analysis The flows in each of the individual shops (identified by FFA) are analyzed.

for the most part.. while forming and rearranging the PFA matrix (slides 29-41) we were performing Group Analysis. a problem specific issue .Group Analysis Essentially. FFA etc. Those same algorithms are also employed in PFA activities other than Group Analysis (namely CFA.) Choice of algorithm or technique that is best suited is.

.Line Analysis A linear or U-layout is designed for the machines assigned to each cell. & – Minimum material handling and travel by operators. The routings for each part assigned to the cell and the frequency of use of each routing are used to develop a cell for: – Efficient transport.

Line Analysis Example .

. This increases available machine capacity on bottleneck work canters in the cell. tooling and setups.Tooling Analysis A Tooling Analysis helps to schedule the cell by identifying families of parts with similar operation sequences. It seeks to sequence parts on each machine to sequence all the machines in the cell to reduce setup times and batch sizes.

PFA: Assumptions • Each component is equally important in terms of cost • Lot size & its associated cost are not directly related to grouping procedure • Routing is assumed to be optimal .

PFA: Weakness PFA is suitable mostly for small sized applications. but it has difficulties coping with some large cell formation problems when the Machine-Part Matrix becomes more complex because of problem size .

PFA: Advantages • Reduces flow distances • Better suited to JIT and “pull” manufacturing as the overall flow is much straighter • Simple and Easy to implement • Experience: Lots of Research and Background and support software .

Questions?!? Could you use this for a “real-world” problem? What problems arise from using PFA? .