Citation

Masyitah Abd Rahim Harvindar Kaur

(2012). doi:10. 1(1). 138–150. E. dust and water are among pollutants that resulted from construction activities. Agyekum. Student’s Citation According to Ball. 2012) material waste. dust and water.. Morledge and Jackson (as cited in Agyekum. J. K. Engineering Management.Paraphrasing Original text Compared with other industries. Adinyira. noise. Consultants’ Perspectives on Materials Waste Reduction in Ghana.v1n1p138 . & Ayarkwa.. noise.5539/emr. including solid waste. Ayarkwa & Adinyira. construction generates fairly large amount of pollutants.

Nadira Ahzahar.04.1016/j. 175 – 181. unkempt construction sites and poor workmanship. Procedia . Waste Management Issues in the Northern Region of Malaysia.2012. Mohd Azrizal and Janidah (2010) it was found that construction waste in Northern Region of Malaysia was mainly caused by waste generation utilizing traditional construction method. untidy construction sites and lack of management techniques to minimize waste. poor handling. doi: 10. Nadira.Social and Behavioral Sciences 42. poor storage. the main factors that contribute to waste generation are obviously those related to the traditional construction method: poor workmanship. Janidah Eman.Paraphrasing Original Text In conclusion. Student’s Citation Hafizan. Mohd Azrizal Fauzi & Siti Hafizan Hassan (2010).179 .sbspro.

Al-Hajj. K.2011. Material Waste in the UAE Construction Industry: Main Causes and Minimisation Practices. & Hamani. doi: 10. poor design and unskilled labour and rework were the crucial causes that contributed to construction waste production in United Arab Emirates (Al Hajj & Hamani. (2011). These factors are namely: (i) lack of workers’ awareness. Three factors have been identified with a mean greater than 3 (more than a moderate contribution).Paraphrasing Original Text An analysis of the responses is presented in Table 5..594576 . 221-235. A. resulting in excessive off-cuts. Student’s Citation Findings proved that a lack of workers’ awareness.1080/17452007. and (iii) unskilled labour and rework. Architectural Engineering and Design Management.7. (ii) poor design. 2011).

org/AJEST ... F. (5) lack of communication. a study was conducted by Wahab and Lawal and it was found that last minute client requirement. Student’s Citation In 2011. 246-254. & Wahab.academicjournals. B. (4) unforeseen ground condition. A. difficult design and lack of design information were the prominent factors for design variations in Nigeria which resulted in waste production at a later stage. 5. (2011). Lawal. (2) complex design. A.Paraphrasing Original text The result of the research revealed that the factors that cause design variations that are incidental to wastages are (in order of importance) as: (1) Last minute client requirement. and (6) long project duration.. An evaluation of waste control measures in construction industry in Nigeria. Retrieved from http://www. (3) lack of design information. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology.

1) and designers did not produce complete working and contract drawings at the tender stage (mean = 4.com/ruben_ndihokubwayo/20 . Paris..Paraphrasing Original Text Most respondents agreed that clients provided unclear and ambiguous briefs of the scope of works (mean = 4. Student’s Citation Unclear and vague briefs. R. there was a lack of closer consultant coordination at design stage (mean = 4. there were many variation orders on construction projects in South Africa. & Haupt. Retrieved from http://works. (2010). Building and Real Estate Research Conference of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors.2).1).bepress. Waste reduction through lean and agile thinking: case of variation orders. Evidently. lack of closer consultant coordination and incomplete working and contract drawings at tender stage were top three reasons for the variation orders in South African construction industry Ndihokubwayo. Paper presented at the Construction. T.

Student’s Citation Any material. non-use. other than the intended specific purpose of the project due to materials damage.net/publication/229049992_Construction_material_waste_source _evaluation . Retrieved from http://www.Long Quotation Original Text Any material. incineration. recycling. Ekanayake. In Proceedings of Strategies for A Sustainable Built Environment. & Ofori. (2000). or non-compliance with the specifications or being a by-product of the construction process.. which needs to be transported elsewhere from the construction site or used within the construction site itself for the purpose of landfilling. Pretoria: South Africa. excess. apart from earth materials. recycling. apart from earth materials. L. which needs to be transported elsewhere from the construction site or used within the construction site itself for the purpose of landfilling. other than the intended specific purpose of the project due to materials damage. reusing or composting. re-using or composting. incineration. excess.L. or non-compliance with the specifications or being a by-product of the construction process. G.researchgate. nonuse.

In this category. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences (IJAAS). wrong material storages and poor material handling. • Ade Asmi. (2012). • Student’s Citation Nagapan. S. & Nagapan. Factors Contributing to Physical and Non-Physical Waste Generation in Construction Industry. 1(1). wrong material storage and poor materials handling become key factors for physical waste generation.Summary Original Text • It was found that frequent design changes as the main contributor for waste generation.php/IJAAS . Retrieved from http://iaesjournal. 1-10. Ismail and Ade (2012) found that three major factors for waste generation in construction industry worldwide were frequent design changes.com/online/index. Ismail Abdul Rahman.

some waste accrued as a result (Ndihokubwayo. R.bepress. Beneficial variation orders improved the value of the project while detrimental variation orders compromised it. Building and Real Estate Research Conference of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. interruptions could be variation orders that are integrated within the schedule of works and executed. Paper presented at the Construction.Summary Original Text While lean manufacturing successfully achieves its objective through a streamlined and continuously running process. Waste reduction through lean and agile thinking: case of variation orders. In construction terms. the occurrence of variation orders should have been prevented if the situations yielding abortion of executed works was addressed in advance. T. & Haupt. Arguably. Retrieved from http://works. Paris. Waste is a result of non value-adding activities that consume resources without adding value to the project.. Student’s Citation Ndihokubwayo and Haupt (2010) suggested that variations during construction are the basis that leads to disruption of building process which yields abortion of carried out works. 2008). 2008). Ndihokubwayo. lean construction suffers the interruption of the flow of activities along the critical path partly due to variations. (2010). A study of the impact of variation orders on project performance revealed that most variation orders were beneficial rather than being detrimental (Ndihokubwayo.com/ruben_ndihokub wayo/20 . However. no matter how beneficial a variation order was. Non value-adding activities included demolition and alteration of aborted works due to variation orders.