CORRELATION BETWEEN PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESSOR AND DEPRESSION AMONG SURVIVORS WHO LIVE IN TEMPORARY SHELTER IN DESA UMBULHARJO KECAMATAN

CANGKRINGAN POST DISASTER MOUNT MERAPI VOLCANIC ERUPTION 2010
By: Celina Azureen Bt Mohd Jefri Chand

Background (1)
25/10/2010 Merapi eruption evacuated, 353 dead >350 000

• Most survivor suffer from loss of properties and family members, psychological behavior. • Staying at the shelter increase psychosocial stress among survivors • Mental health diagnostic test conducted to survivors in Yogyakarta and Klaten, it is found : - 595 people (3,5% from 7223 people) have mental problem - Depression is 4,36% (Magelang District Hospital, 2010) • Thus, increase risk for depression

Pictures of the shelter .

Background (2) Work Stress Respect & Acceptance Stressful Life Events Threat to social status Psychosoc ial Stress General Stress Income Marital Stress Education .

• Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2007 : incidence of depression in kabupaten Sleman estimated 12% which is highest in Yogyakarta province .Background (3) • Increase in psychosocial stress depression • There is no data about correlation between psychosocial stress and depression during Merapi eruption.

.Research Question Is there any correlation between psychosocial stress with depression in the survivor that live at Desa Umbulharjo Kacamatan Cangkringan temporary shelter? Objectives The purpose of this study is to find out the correlation between psychosocial stressor with depression in survivor that live in Desa Umbulharjo Kacamatan Cangkringan temporary shelter.

(Baldwin & Birtwistle. experience of adversity. 1986) • Psychosocial risk factors for depression such as low self esteem. undesirable recent life events and persisting difficulties.Literature Review (1) 1) Psychosocial Stress • Psychosocial stress refers to a relationship with the environment that the person appraises as significant for his or her well-being and in which the demands tax or exceed available coping resources (Lazarus & Folkman. obsessional personality. 2005) . 2002) • Individual response varies towards traumatic event but some can develop into psychopathology (Yehuda & Bierer.

sleep disturbance.8% (WHO. and the incidences increases with age (Saddock. lack of energy and sometimes suicidal thoughts (DSM-IV.2) Depression • Depression is a syndrome that describes a cluster of symptoms which are generally comprised of depressed mood. loss of appetite. anxiety. 2001) and is the 2nd most common disorder to emerge in the aftermath of a disaster.2007) • Etiology • Biology • Genetic • Psychosocial . loss of interest. • Depression is approximately twice as common in women as in in men. 1994) • Depression has biggest case burden in general population with 11.

loss of immediate leadership and insuffiency of the system (Lopez-Ibor.Literature Review (3) 3) Disaster • A “disaster” is defined as an occurrence where normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of suffering exceeds the capacity of hazardaffected community to respond to it (WHO.2005) . 2005) • Cause total breakdown of everyday functioning with disappearance of social functioning.2005) • It is estimated that 9 months after a disaster the number of depression may have increased (WHO.

Conceptual Framework Risk factors: Gender Age Marital status Income Loss of family member Heavy Survivor Psychosocial Stress Mild Depression Depression Yes No Yes No .

Refuse to participate . Sleman • Inclusion .Research Design (1) 1) Cross Sectional Study 2) Data is categorized into • Level of psychosocial stress • Presence of depression 3) Population : Survivor of Mt. Merapi volcanic eruption who live in temporary shelter in Umbolharjo Cangkringan.Unable to complete the questionnaire .Adults aged between 20 to 59 .Willingness to participate • Exclusion .

Research Design (2) 4) Measurement • Personal questionnaire • BDI Sn: 80% Sp: 82% cut off > 13 considered depressed 1999) (Lasa et al. • IPSP score > 17 . 1998) 5) Variable • Independent : Level of psychosocial stress • Dependent : Depression . heavy stress (Sudiyanto.

Results (1) • • • • Minimum sample size from calculation : 38 Sample collected : 60 Included sample : 47 Excluded sample : 13 • 3 refuse • 7 not staying at shelter • 2 blind • 1 is 62 years old .

5%) 11(32.5%) 23(67.0%) 1 (33.6%) 11(100.7%) 7 (63.3%) 9 (29.Result (2) Table 1. Distribution of characteristic data of subjects in temporary shelter Desa Umbulharjo in July 2011.7%) 6 (28. Variable Total Age Characteristic <25 26-39 >40 SD SMP SMA Farmer Non farmer Housewife >UMR Sleman <UMR Sleman N 47 3 31 13 30 11 6 15 21 11 13 34 Male 16(34.4%) 0 (0.4%) 1 (16.694 .7%) 22(71.6%) 5 (83.0%) 8 (61.7%) 8 (53.4%) Female 31(66.3%) 15(71.3%) 7 (46.0%) 5 (38.6%) Education Occupation Economy UMR Sleman = Rp 745.0%) 7 (53.0%) 6 (46.0%) 2 (66.2%) 11(36.8%) 19(63.7%) 4 (36.

3%) 23(67.7%) 11(32. shows the prevalence of depression and psychosocial stress among sample.5%) 17(73.9%) 14(58.4%) 5 (38.1%) 10(41. Variable N Male Female OR Depression Stress Yes No Heavy Mild 23 24 34 13 6 (26.351 *Chi-square test .6%) 8 (61.5%) *0.Result (3) Table 2.

Result (4) 25 20 23 Number of Subjects 15 11 10 8 5 Male Female 5 0 Heavy Mild Figure 1. The distribution of level of stress according to gender .

Result (5) 25 20 17 15 11 10 6 5 0 Depression Stress Figure 2. The distribution of depression and heavy stress according to gender Male Female 23 Number of Subjects .

9% 44.1% Total 34 100.452 N 47 Statistics * -0. July 2011.489 Psychosocial 1.0% Stress Heavy Mild Count % within stress Count % within stress Count % within stress Total *p value for all is 0.8% 69.505 0.129 **0. Cross tabulatiuon level of psychosocial stress and depression among the survivors in temporary shelter Desa Umbulharjo. Depression Yes No 19 15 55.277 Stress *Pearson Correlation **Fisher’s Exact Test Standard Deviation 0.Table 2. Correlation between psychosocial stress and depression among the subjects in temporary shelter Desa Umbulharjo.225 P 0.2% 23 24 48.112 .9% 51.112 Table 4.0% 13 100. Mean Depression 1. July 2011.0% 47 100.1% 4 9 30.

2004 was 6. post Hurricanes season in Florida.9% . post Tsunami..Discussion (1) • Prevalence of depression in this study is 48. 2006) • The difference due to type of natural disaster.9% (Amstadter et al.affected area in Southern Thailand.1% (Acierno et al. where the subjects are experiencing heavy psychosocial stress . measurement tools and method chosen. 2007) . higher than other studies • Prevalence of depression for post typhoon Xangsane in Vietnam. • This study is done in temporary shelter. included participants.. 2006 was 5. 2009). 2004 was 51% for (Griensven et al..

there is no significant differences between the variables. depression is less likely to occur • Not consistent with the theory stressful life events and onset of depression might be associated because such stressful life events directly increase the risk of depression (Kenneth et al. 34 (72.9%) had depression • Although prevalence is high.365 .090-1.3%) of subjects suffers from heavy psychosocial stress and only 19 (55. • OR obtained is 0. 1999) • CI 95% is 0..Discussion (2) • Out of 47 subjects.351. thus OR is not significant .

1992) • Depression is approximately twice as common in women as in in men.2007) • Coping as the cognitive and behavioural efforts that allow an individual to tolerate. 1998) • Inconsistency may be caused by the combined samples of men and women even though there is evidence that the sex difference in depressive symptoms varies with age (Kessler et al. escape.. or minimize the effects of stress (Lazarus & Folkman. 1984) .Discussion (3) • Negative correlation shows that subject perceive that they have control and are able to react positively and actively towards stressful environment (Dumont. and the incidences increase with age (Saddock.

2003) .. Age Solomon et al.2012. Metin et al.1986) low education level have higher tendency for depression Education (Solomon et al.2007.2007. Shore et al. 2012. Burke & Weir.2007. Danesh &Landeen.1992. Croat .Gender Psychosocial stress is not the only factor ! depression is more common in women compared to men (Saddock. Metin et al. Mirowsky. 2011) Social low social support increase risk of depression (Solomon et Support al.1978.2012.2004) incidence of depression increases with age (Saddock.2004) Social wealthy people were at greater risk than poor people for depression they had lost more than poor people and were less Economy because accustomed to asking for help (Shah. 1985) low socio-economic status especially when assessed by indices of material standard of living. was consistently associated with a higher prevalence of depression in cross-sectional studies (Lorant et al .

Conclusion This study has not been unable to demonstrate the correlation between psychosocial stress and depression in survivor who lives is Desa Umbuharjo Temporary Shelter Kecamatan Cangkringan .

• Expansion of the scope of the study to cover more variables and risk factors that cause depression Limitation • • • • Study design is cross sectional Time of observation Sample size is too small Previous mental disorders not measured .Suggestion • Obtaining a larger sample size with equal distribution of demographic data.