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BOOLEAN OPERATIONS

1

Course Learning Outcomes, CLO CLO 2:simplify logical expressions by using Boolean algebra and related techniques orderly. CLO 3:perform correctly basic arithmetic operations by using Boolean laws.

2

SUMMARY

BOOLEAN OPERATIONS

Symbols, truth table, logic gates applications; NOT, AND, OR, NOR, NAND, XOR, XNOR. Laws of Boolean Algebra, Sum of Product (SOP), Product of Sum (POS) and Karnaugh Map.

3

TRUTH TABLES A truth table is a table that describes the behavior of a logic gate The number of input combinations will equal 2N for an N-input truth table 4 4 .

II. IV. V. III. NOT/INVERTER gate AND gate OR gate NAND gate NOR gate XOR gate XNOR gate 5 .LOGIC GATES Circuits which perform logic functions are called gates The basic gates are: I. VI. VII.

Symbol I. NOT/INVERTER gate Timing Diagram Truth Table 6 .

AND gate Symbol Timing Diagram Truth Table 7 .II.

OR gate Timing Diagram Truth Table 8 .Symbol III.

IV. NAND gate 9 .

NOR gate 10 .V.

VI. XOR gate Diagram 11 .

VII. XNOR gate 12 .

OR and NOT gates using NAND gates 13 .Construct AND.

Three basic logic operations AND. A truth table for a function is a list of all combinations of 1’s and 0’s that can be assigned to the binary variable and a list that shows the value of the function for each binary combination A Boolean expression also can be transformed into a circuit diagram composed of logic gates that implements the function 14 . OR and NOT A Boolean function can be represented by using truth table.BOOLEAN ALGEBRA The Boolean algebra is an algebra dealing with binary variables and logic operation The variables are designated by: I. Letters of the alphabet II.

Examples F = A + BC 15 .

BASIC IDENTITIES AND BOOLEAN LAWS 16 .

17 .

18 .

in reducing the number of terms in the expression The reduced expression will produce a circuit that is less complex than the one that original expression would have produced. Examples Simplify this function F=ABC+ABC+AC 19 . All these Boolean basic identities and Boolean Laws can be useful in simplifying a logic expression.

20 .

STANDARD FORM Product term A term with the product of literals The AND of literals Boolean multiplication I. Sum term A term with the sum of literals The OR of literals Boolean addition 21 . II.

Sum of Product (SOP) A SOP is a switching expressions consisting either of a single product term or the OR (sum) of product term Standard form of SOP is where all the variables in the domain appear in each product term in the expression There are two steps to convert the equation into a standard form of SOP: 1. Multiply each of the nonstandard term with the missing term using Boolean algebra A+A=1 2. Repeat until all variables appear in each product term. 22 .

Examples Convert this Boolean equation into standard form of SOP F=A+BC+ABC 23 .

Third step: Repeat until all variables appear in each product term. Second step: Apply the Boolean identities again (A + B C) = (A + B) (A + C) 3. 24 .Product of Sum (POS) POS is when two or more sum term is multiplied together Standard form of POS is where all the variables in the domain appear in each sum term in the expression There are three steps in a way to convert a product term to standard form of POS: 1. Multiply each of the nonstandard term with the missing term using Boolean algebra A · A = 0 2.

Examples Convert this Boolean equation into standard form of POS F = (A + B) · (A + B + C) · (B + C) 25 .

KARNAUGH MAP provides a systematic method for simplifying a Boolean expression or a truth table function The K-map is a table consisting of N = 2n cells. The table format is such that there is a single variable change between any adjacent cells 26 . where n is the number of input variables.

Two variables K-map with assume A and B as variable Three variable K-map with assume A. B and C as variable 27 .

Looping of pair Looping a pair of adjacent 1s in a K-map eliminates the variable that appears in complemented and uncomplemented form 28 . Looping 1.

Looping group of four Looping a quad of adjacent 1s eliminate the two variables that appear in both complemented and uncomplemented form 29 .2.

3. Looping group of eight Looping an octet of adjacent 1s eliminates the three variables that appear in the both complemented and uncomplemented form 30 .

Examples Simplify this Boolean equation by using K-maps F = X Y Z+ X Y Z + X Y Z 31 .

Examples Find out the equation based on the given 32 .

Solution 33 .

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