# CHAPTER 2

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BOOLEAN OPERATIONS

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Course Learning Outcomes, CLO CLO 2:simplify logical expressions by using Boolean algebra and related techniques orderly. CLO 3:perform correctly basic arithmetic operations by using Boolean laws.

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SUMMARY
BOOLEAN OPERATIONS
Symbols, truth table, logic gates applications; NOT, AND, OR, NOR, NAND, XOR, XNOR. Laws of Boolean Algebra,  Sum of Product (SOP), Product of Sum (POS) and Karnaugh Map.
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TRUTH TABLES  A truth table is a table that describes the behavior of a logic gate  The number of input combinations will equal 2N for an N-input truth table 4 4 .

II. IV. V. III. NOT/INVERTER gate AND gate OR gate NAND gate NOR gate XOR gate XNOR gate 5 .LOGIC GATES  Circuits which perform logic functions are called gates  The basic gates are: I. VI. VII.

Symbol I. NOT/INVERTER gate Timing Diagram Truth Table 6 .

AND gate Symbol Timing Diagram Truth Table 7 .II.

OR gate Timing Diagram Truth Table 8 .Symbol III.

IV. NAND gate 9 .

NOR gate 10 .V.

VI. XOR gate Diagram 11 .

VII. XNOR gate 12 .

OR and NOT gates using NAND gates 13 .Construct AND.

Three basic logic operations AND. A truth table for a function is a list of all combinations of 1’s and 0’s that can be assigned to the binary variable and a list that shows the value of the function for each binary combination  A Boolean expression also can be transformed into a circuit diagram composed of logic gates that implements the function 14 . OR and NOT  A Boolean function can be represented by using truth table.BOOLEAN ALGEBRA  The Boolean algebra is an algebra dealing with binary variables and logic operation  The variables are designated by: I. Letters of the alphabet II.

 Examples F = A + BC 15 .

BASIC IDENTITIES AND BOOLEAN LAWS 16 .

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in reducing the number of terms in the expression  The reduced expression will produce a circuit that is less complex than the one that original expression would have produced.  Examples Simplify this function F=ABC+ABC+AC 19 . All these Boolean basic identities and Boolean Laws can be useful in simplifying a logic expression.

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STANDARD FORM Product term  A term with the product of literals  The AND of literals  Boolean multiplication I. Sum term  A term with the sum of literals  The OR of literals  Boolean addition 21 . II.

Sum of Product (SOP)  A SOP is a switching expressions consisting either of a single product term or the OR (sum) of product term  Standard form of SOP is where all the variables in the domain appear in each product term in the expression  There are two steps to convert the equation into a standard form of SOP: 1. Multiply each of the nonstandard term with the missing term using Boolean algebra A+A=1 2. Repeat until all variables appear in each product term. 22 .

 Examples Convert this Boolean equation into standard form of SOP F=A+BC+ABC 23 .

Third step: Repeat until all variables appear in each product term. Second step: Apply the Boolean identities again (A + B C) = (A + B) (A + C) 3. 24 .Product of Sum (POS)  POS is when two or more sum term is multiplied together  Standard form of POS is where all the variables in the domain appear in each sum term in the expression  There are three steps in a way to convert a product term to standard form of POS: 1. Multiply each of the nonstandard term with the missing term using Boolean algebra A · A = 0 2.

 Examples Convert this Boolean equation into standard form of POS F = (A + B) · (A + B + C) · (B + C) 25 .

KARNAUGH MAP  provides a systematic method for simplifying a Boolean expression or a truth table function  The K-map is a table consisting of N = 2n cells.  The table format is such that there is a single variable change between any adjacent cells 26 . where n is the number of input variables.

Two variables K-map with assume A and B as variable Three variable K-map with assume A. B and C as variable 27 .

Looping of pair  Looping a pair of adjacent 1s in a K-map eliminates the variable that appears in complemented and uncomplemented form 28 . Looping 1.

Looping group of four  Looping a quad of adjacent 1s eliminate the two variables that appear in both complemented and uncomplemented form 29 .2.

3. Looping group of eight  Looping an octet of adjacent 1s eliminates the three variables that appear in the both complemented and uncomplemented form 30 .

 Examples Simplify this Boolean equation by using K-maps F = X Y Z+ X Y Z + X Y Z 31 .

 Examples Find out the equation based on the given 32 .

Solution 33 .