WCDMA RAN Principle

3G RNP&O

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to: Outline the advantage of CDMA principle

Characterize code sequence
Outline the fundamentals of RAN

1. 3G Overview 2. CDMA Principle 3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

3G Spectrum Allocation

Bands Used in WCDMA
Main bands

1920 ~ 1980MHz / 2110 ~ 2170MHz
Supplementary bands: different country maybe different 1850 ~ 1910 MHz / 1930 MHz ~ 1990 MHz (USA) 1710 ~ 1785MHz / 1805 ~ 1880MHz (Japan) 890 ~ 915MHz / 935 ~ 960MHz (Australia) ... Frequency channel number=central frequency×5, for main band: UL frequency channel number :9612~9888 DL frequency channel number : 10562~10838

3G Application Service Error Ratio conversational streaming interactive background Time Delay .

The Core technology of 3G: CDMA WCDMA CN: based on MAP and GPRS RTT: WCDMA cdma2000 CN: based on ANSI 41 and MIP RTT: cdma2000 TD-SCDMA CDMA CN: based on MAP and GPRS RTT: TD-SCDMA .

CDMA Principle 3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4.1. 3G Overview 2. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental .

Multiple Access Technology FDMA TDMA Power Power CDMA Power .

Duplex Techniques Power Time USER 2 FDD UL USER 1 DL Frequency Power Time DL UL DL DL UL USER 2 USER 1 TDD Frequency .

CDMA Principle 3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4.1. 3G Overview 2. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental .

WCDMA Network Archiecture CN Core Network CS PS Iu-CS Iu-PS RNS RNC UTRAN Iub Iub Node B Iub CS PS Iu-CS Iu-PS RNS Iur RNC Iub Node B Node B Node B UE Uu .

Network Evolution MBMS HSUPA GSM/GPRS CN WCDMA RTT CS domain change to NGN WCDMA RTT IMS HSDPA 3GPP Rel6 3GPP Rel5 3GPP Rel99 3GPP Rel4 2000 2001 2002 2005 .

Network Evolution • Features of R6 – MBMS is introduced – HSUPA is introduced to achieve the service rate up to 5. which adopts higher order modulation and MIMO – Max DL rate: 28Mbps. Max UL rate:11Mbps • Features of R8 – WCDMA LTE (Long term evolution) is introduced – OFDMA is adopted instead of CDMA – Max DL rate: 50Mbps. Max UL rate: 100Mbps (with 20MHz bandwidth) .76Mbps • Features of R7 – HSPA+ is introduced.

Uu Interface protocol structure Duplication avoidance GC C-plane signaling Nt DC U-plane information UuS boundary RRC control L3 L2/PDCP L2/BMC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC L2/RLC RLC MAC PHY L2/MAC .

Radio Network Layer Control Plane Application Protocol Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane User Plane Data Stream(s) Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane ALCAP(s) Signaling Bearer(s) Signaling Bearer(s) Physical Layer Data Bearer(s) .General Protocol Mode for UTRAN Terrestrial Interface • The structure is based on the principle that the layers and planes are logically independent of each other.

General Protocol Mode for UTRAN Terrestrial Interface • The structure is based on the principle that the layers and planes are logically independent of each other. Radio Network Layer Control Plane Application Protocol Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane User Plane Data Stream(s) Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane ALCAP(s) Signaling Bearer(s) Signaling Bearer(s) Physical Layer Data Bearer(s) .

Iu-CS Interface Radio Network Layer Control Plane RANAP User plane Iu UP Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Layer ALCAP SCCP A MTP3-B B MTP3-B SAAL NNI AAL2 PATH SAAL NNI ATM Physical Layer .

Iu-CS Interface Protocol (IP) .

Iu-PS Interface Radio Network Layer Control Plane RANAP User plane Iu UP Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane SCCP MTP3-B Transport Network User Plane GTP-U UDP IP SAAL NNI AAL Type 5 ATM Physical Layer .

Iu-PS Interface Protocol (IP) .

Iub Interface Radio Network Layer Control Plane NBAP NCP CCP Transport Network Control Plane Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane ALCAP Transport Network User Plane User plane Iub FP SAAL UNI SAAL UNI AAL2 PATH ATM Physical Layer .

Iub Interface Protocol (ATM) .

Iub Interface Protocol (IP) .

3G Overview 2. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4. CDMA Principle 3.1. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental .

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Service Signal Source Coding Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission bit symbol chip modulated signal Radio Channel Service Signal Source Channel Decoding Decoding & Deinterleaving Despreading Demodulation Reception Receiver .

7 (PDC EFR) 5.2 (GSM EFR) 10.9 5.75 Bit Rate (kbps) 12. .2 7.324 is used for VP Service in CS domain – Includes: video codec.40 AMR_6.15 AMR_4.70 AMR_5.95 7.75 • Video Phone Service – H.4 (TDMA EFR) 6.20 AMR_7.20 AMR_10. speech codec. data protocols.95 AMR_7.90 AMR_5.WCDMA Source Coding • AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate) Speech – A integrated speech codec with 8 source rates – The AMR bit rates can be controlled by the RAN depending on the system load and quality of the speech connections CODEC AMR_12.15 4. multiplexing and etc.

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Service Signal Source Coding Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission bit symbol chip modulated signal Radio Channel Service Signal Source Channel Decoding Decoding & Deinterleaving Despreading Demodulation Reception Receiver .

CRC • Block coding is used to detect if there are any uncorrected errors left after error correction.WCDMA Block Coding . • Adding the CRC bits is done before the channel encoding and they are checked after the channel decoding. . • The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a common method of block coding.

1/3) – Turbo Coding (1/3) No Coding 1/2 Convolutional Coding Code Block of N Bits 1/3 Convolutional Coding 1/3 Turbo Coding Uncoded N bits Coded 2N+16 bits Coded 3N+24 bits Coded 3N+12 bits .WCDMA Channel Coding • Effect – Enhance the correlation among symbols so as to recover the signal when interference occurs – Provides better error correction at receiver. but brings increment of the delay • Types – No Coding – Convolutional Coding (1/2.

.  .. .  . 10111 0 0  . or 80 ms Inter-column permutation 0 0 ..  1 1  Interleaving periods: 20... .  .... ... 1 1 0 1 0 .............. ..... ..  0 0 1 0 0 ......  0 0 0  .  1 1  0 . 40. 1 1 00…010…100…10…11 Output bits ..WCDMA Interleaving • Effect – Interleaving is used to reduce the probability of consecutive bits error – Longer interleaving periods have better data protection with more delay Input bits 0010000 . .  .

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Service Signal Source Coding Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission bit symbol chip modulated signal Radio Channel Service Signal Source Channel Decoding Decoding & Deinterleaving Despreading Demodulation Reception Receiver .

Correlation • Correlation measures similarity between any two arbitrary signals. • Identical and Orthogonal signals: +1 C1 C2 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 1 -1 1  -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 Correlation = 1 Identical signals C1 C2 +1 -1 -1 1 -1 1  1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 Correlation = 0 Orthogonal signals .

Orthogonal Code Usage .Coding UE1: UE2: +1 -1 -1 +1 C1 : C2 : UE1×c1: -1 +1 -1 +1 - 1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 UE2×c2: -1 -1 -1 -1 + 1 +1 +1 +1 UE1×c1+ UE2×c2: -2 0 -2 0 +2 0 +2 0 .

Orthogonal Code Usage Decoding UE1×C1+ UE2×C2: 0 -2 0 -2 0 +2 0 +2 UE1 Dispreading by c1: Dispreading result: Integral judgment: -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +2 0 +2 0 -2 0 -2 0 +4 (means+1) -4 (means-1) UE2 Dispreading by c2: Dispreading result: Integral judgment: +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -2 0 -2 0 +2 0 +2 0 -4 (means-1) +4 (means+1) .

Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading P(f) Spreading code P(f) f Narrowband signal f Broadband signal P(f) f Noise & Other Signal Recovered signal P(f) Signal Combination Noise+Broadband signal P(f) f Spreading code f .

Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading Eb / No = Ec / No ×PG Ebit Eb/No Requiremen t Max allowed interference .

vice versa. – If the service bit rate is greater.Process Gain • Process Gain chip rate Pr ocessGain  10log( ) bit rate – Process gain differs for each service. the process gain is smaller. UE needs more power for this service. . then the coverage of this service will be smaller.

which transforms data symbols into chips – Scrambling operation is applied to the spreading signal Data symbol channelization scrambling .Spreading Technology • Spreading consists of 2 steps: – Channelization operation.

1) Cch.1.0 = (1.1.0 = (1.1.-1.2.1) Cch.8.-1.1.0 = (1) Cch.-1) Cch.-1.1.1.1) Cch.3 = (1.8.1.1.4.1.1.1.-1) Cch.2 = (1.6 = (1.-1.-1.8.-1.-1.0 = (1.3 = (1.1.5 = (1.-1.2.1.1.-1) Cch.1.8.-1.-1.4 = (1.8.-1.-1) Cch.1) Cch.1.-1.-1.8.-1.-1.1.-1.1.WCDMA Channelization Code • OVSF Code (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor) is used as channelization code Cch.1.-1.1.1.-1.1.1 = (1.8.-1.-1) Cch.1.1) …… SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 SF = 8 .1.-1.4.-1.-1.1. -1) Cch.-1.1 = (1.1 = (1.7 = (1.-1) Cch.-1.8.4.1) Cch.1.2 = (1.1.1.-1.1) Cch.-1.1.-1.4.-1.

2 DL Data 64 kbps DL SF 128 32 Data 128 kbps UL Data 144 kbps UL Data 384 kbps UL 8 8 4 Data 128 kbps DL Data 144 kbps DL Data 384 kbps DL 16 16 8 .WCDMA Channelization Code • SF = chip rate / symbol rate – High data rates → low SF code – Low data rates → high SF code Radio bearer Speech 12.2 UL Data 64 kbps UL SF 64 16 Radio bearer Speech 12.

Purpose of Channelization Code • Channelization code is used to distinguish different physical channels of one transmitter – For downlink. channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to separate different physical channels of one UE . channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to separate different physical channels of one cell – For uplink.

scrambling code is used to separate different UEs in one carrier . scrambling code is used to separate different cells in one carrier – For uplink.Purpose of Scrambling Code • Scrambling code is used to distinguish different transmitters – For downlink.

Scrambling Code • Scrambling code: GOLD sequence. • For downlink. . • There are 224 long uplink scrambling codes which are used for scrambling of the uplink signals. Uplink scrambling codes are assigned by RNC. 512 primary scrambling codes are used.

Primary Scrambling Code Group Primary scrambling code 0 Group 0 Primary scrambling code 1 …… ………… Primary scrambling codes for downlink physical channels Group 1 … Primary scrambling code 8 Primary scrambling code 8*63 Group 63 …… Primary scrambling code 8*63 +7 512 primary scrambling codes 64 primary scrambling code groups Each group consists of 8 primary scrambling codes .

Code Multiplexing • Downlink Transmission on a Cell Level Scrambling code Channelization code 1 User 1 signal Channelization code 2 User 2 signal Channelization code 3 User 3 signal NodeB .

Code Multiplexing • Uplink Transmission on a Cell Level Scrambling code 1 Channelization code User 1 signal Scrambling code 2 Channelization code User 2 signal NodeB Scrambling code 3 Channelization code User 3 signal .

Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Service Signal Source Coding Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission bit symbol chip modulated signal Radio Channel Service Signal Source Channel Decoding Decoding & Deinterleaving Despreading Demodulation Reception Receiver .

Modulation Overview Data to be transmitted: Digital Input 1 0 1 0 time Basic steady radio wave: carrier = A.cos(2pFt+ ) .cos(2pFt+f) Amplitude Shift Keying: A.cos(2p Ft+f) f Phase Shift Keying: A.cos(2pFt+f) Frequency Shift Keying: A.

Modulation Overview • Digital Modulation .BPSK 1 1 Digital Input 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Information signal t NRZ coding 1 t -1 High Frequency Carrier Carrier fo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 BPSK Waveform f=0 f=p f=0 Modulated BPSK signal BPSK .

Modulation Overview • Digital Modulation .QPSK 1 NRZ Input I di-Bit Stream Q di-Bit Stream 2 3 -1 -1 1 4 1 5 -1 -1 1 6 1 7 1 1 -1 8 -1 -1 -1 9 10 I Component Q Q Component Component QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .

-1 -1.1 -1.1 1.1 -1.-1 NRZ Output 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 .Demodulation • QPSK Constellation Diagram 1 QPSK Waveform -1.

WCDMA Modulation • Different modulation methods corresponding to different transmitting abilities in air interface R99/R4: QPSK HSDPA: QPSK or 16QAM .

Wireless Propagation Transmitted Signal Amplitude Transmission Loss: Path Loss + Multi-path Fading Received Signal Time .

Principle of RAKE Receiver Correlator 1 Correlator 2 Receive set Correlator 3 Searcher correlator s(t) s(t) Calculate the time delay and signal strength Combiner The combined signal t RAKE receiver help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhance the receive performance of the system .