they can skip the presentation and practice stage • Occurs at the beginning of the lesson • Completely controlled by the teacher .Presentation stage Practice stage • Comes after the presentation stage • Studentcentered activity but it is still controlled by the teacher Production stage • Last stage in the oral lesson • For advanced students.

AIMS Presentation stage • Enable the students to recognize the relevance and usefulness of learnt target language • Make the students aware of the contexts in which the language they learn can be appropriately used Practice stage • Give students intensive practice in the target language • Build up students’ confidence to use the target language in the free communicative situation Production stage • Enable students to integrate the new language they have learnt with language they already know • Build greater fluency and ability to cope with features of real communication .

What is taught • The focuses on the presentation stage are. Learning the set of inter-related functions in a communicative situations. formally and informally. Learning different ways of expressing a function. iii. Learning to do common communicative task from the required structure or set of words. . i. ii.

.Example : Teacher: It’s cold outside. Teacher: It’s warm outside.Procedures for presentation 1. Students: It’s warm outside. Put students in a situation in which they need to use the target language (group discussion). Students: It’s cold outside. 2. Drill students in the target structures .give students rapid practice in the target language . Provide a clear model for students to imitate (speech) 3.

Typical activities for practice stage Model dialogues Communicative games Drills Information gap activities .

I ___________ think so. Or No. ________________. . A: What hours is it open? B: ___________ open from _________ to ___________.Model dialogues  Model dialogues is put up on the blackboard or OHP  The students use this model to make up responses of their own  Example : A: Do you know if the library is open on ____________? B: Yes.

Communicative games  Provide repetition  Without boredom  Minimum chance of error  Example : Students can play the game ‘Happy Family’ .

What about you? Student 2: My name is Martin. and I like camping.  Examples : Student 1: My name is Marina. and I like reading.Drills  Allow students to apply the language they have learned to express something about themselves. What about you? .

Information gap activities  Can minimized the boredom of repetition  The students interact for a purpose  Give different information to different students.  Tight linguistic controls. .

For example :  Ask your partner where you can do the following: • buy some steaks. • see a movie • order some sushi • rent a bike .

Features of the production stage  The activities provide natural settings for frequent and natural occurrence of the target language along with other language  Situation is spelt out but the language is not  Fluency is the focus of this stage  Correction and teacher intervention are only offered when requested by the student  Activities have a clear purpose and are more meaning or content focussed than language .

Types of activities for production stage Discourse chain Problem solving Role play Information gap Informationsharing and opinion gap Opinion gap .

Example of role play .

Example of discourse chain .

Example of information gap .

Student D: Let’s make a duty rooster to maintain our class cleanliness . • Each member of the group will give suggestion and explain why it is suitable to make their class more beautiful.Example of opinion gap • Students are given a situation where they need to decorate their class. Student A: Let’s paint the class with green colour. They are assigned to be in a group of four. Student B: Let’s put vases with plants in the class Student C: I want to put pictures on the wall. Suggestions.

• Students choose the appropriate ways.Example of Problem solving • Students are shown pictures of a dirty toilet and a clean toilet. . • Students are asked to share their understanding what makes the toilet dirty and how to solve the problem. • Lists are given on how to keep the toilet clean.

Each pair will be given a short description of two restaurants. . • Time will be allocated for each pair to discuss on which restaurant they should go. • Students are also required to give reasons to support their choice.Information-sharing and opinion gap • Students are divided into pairs.