Introduction to UAE


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and sharing sea borders with Iraq . Bahrain. and cultural activities. industrial. and Saudi Arabia. with a single national president. which is also the state's center of political. and Iran. bordering Oman. abbreviated as the UAE. 3 . each governed by a hereditary emir. Qatar. Kuwait .Introduction:  The United Arab Emirates.  The UAE is a federation of seven emirates (equivalent to principalities).  The capital is Abu Dhabi. is a country situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Arabian Gulf .

As a federation of seven monarchies (kingdoms).  The UAE's political system. hereditary rulers of the territories. in reference to a 19th-century truce (peace. which is composed of several involved connected governing bodies. is based on its 1971 Constitution. and Arabic is the official language. the UAE was known as the Trucial States.Introduction  Prior to independence in 1971.  Islam is the official religion of the UAE. whose rulers retain absolute power within their emirates. treaty) between the local sheikhs. and the United Kingdom. 4 .

bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf. It shares a 530kilometer border with Saudi Arabia on the west. and a 450-kilometer border with Oman on the southeast and northeast.Geography:  The United Arab Emirates is situated in Southwest Asia. it is in a strategic location along southern approaches to the channel of Hormuz. a vital transit point for world crude oil.  The UAE lies between 22°30' and 26°10' north latitude and between 51° and 56°25′ east longitude. and southeast. south. between Oman and Saudi Arabia. 5 .

Geography  The largest emirate.340 square kilometers). Abu Dhabi. encompasses only 259 square kilometers . 6 . vast. The desert area of Abu Dhabi includes two important oasis with sufficient underground water for permanent settlements and cultivation. accounts for 87% of the UAE's total area (67.  South and west of Abu Dhabi. rolling sand dunes merge into the Rub al-Khali (Empty Quarter) of Saudi Arabia. The smallest emirate.  The UAE coast stretches for more than 650 kilometers along the southern shore of the Arabian Gulf. Ajman.

By the first century AD overland caravan traffic between Syria and cities in southern Iraq. 7 . Seaborne travel to the important port of Omana (perhaps present-day Umm al-Qaiwain) and from that place to India was an alternative to the Red Sea route used by the Romans. Domestication of the camel at the end of the second millennium BC New irrigation techniques (falaj irrigation) made possible the extensive watering of agricultural areas.History of UAE  UAE may have played an important role in the migration of     early Man out of Africa into Asia.

bringing merchants from as far afield as China. 8 .History of UAE ( Cont’)  Pearls had been exploited in the area for millennia but at this time the trade reached new heights.  Seafaring was also a mainstay and major fairs were held at Dibba.

9 .Conversion to Islam  The arrival of envoys from the Prophet Muhammad in 630 AD announced the conversion of the region to Islam.  Julfar became a wealthy port and pearling centre from which great wooden dhows ranged far and wide across the Indian Ocean. By 637 AD Islamic armies were using Julfar (Ra’s alKhaimah) as a platform post for the success of Iran.

000 sailors to sea.  A local power. Khor Fakkan and Kalba. was gathering strength. 10 .War at Sea  The Portuguese arrival in the Gulf in the sixteenth century had bloody consequences for the Arab residents of Julfar and east coast ports like Dibba. Bidiya.  At the beginning of the nineteenth century the Qawisim had built up a fleet of over 60 large vessels and could put nearly 20. the Qawasim.  Eventually provoking a British offensive to control the maritime trade routes between the Gulf and India.

Out of the Desert  Villages at Liwa were the focus of economic and social activity for the Bani Yas from before the sixteenth century.  by the early 1790s the town of Abu Dhabi had become such an important pearling centre that the political leader of all the Bani Yas groups. settled by the creek in Dubai and established Maktoum rule in that emirate. 11 . a branch of the Bani Yas. members of the Al Bu Falasah.  Early in the nineteenth century. the sheikh of the Al Bu Falah (Al Nahyan family) moved there from the Liwa.