Sustainable Development

• Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. • http://sharvanishukla.blogspot.in/2008/02/emergence-ofenvironmental-issues.html

Stockholm Conference
• The 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (UNCHE), held in Stockholm, was the first major UN Conference on the environment. • The purpose of the conference was not to discuss scientific or technological approaches to environmental problems but to coordinate international policy.

• Agenda 21 is named so because it is an action programme for the 21st century. • It was adopted at the UN Conference on Environment and Development which was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development. .AGENDA 21 • Agenda 21 is a non-binding.

. along with the key issues of trade and integrated decisionmaking.• Agenda 21 is divided into four sections: I Social and Economic Dimensions – • examining the underlying human factors and problems of development.

all of which must be examined in detail if sustainable development is to be achieved at global. presenting the range of resources. national and local levels.• Conservation and Management of Resources for Development– • The largest section of Agenda 21. ecosystems and other issues. .

III Strengthening the Role of Major Groups Looks at the social partnerships necessary if sustainable development is to be a reality. .

IV Means of Implementation The section looks at the resources which must be mobilised in support of sustainable futures. .

Environmental Protection in the Development Process .The 27 Principles Principle 1. The Right to development Principle 4. The role of humans. Principle 2. State sovereignty Principle 3.

State Cooperation to Protect Ecosystem Principle 8. Capacity Building for Sustainable Development . Priority for the Least Developed Principle 7. Reduction of Unsustainable Patterns of Production and Consumption Principle 9. Eradication of Poverty Principle 6.Principle 5.

State Cooperation to Prevent environmental dumping . Public participation Principle 11. Compensation for Victims of Pollution and other Environmental Damage Principle 14.Principle 10. Supportive and Open International Economic System Principle 13. National Environmental Legislation Principle 12.

Internalization of Environmental Costs. Environmental Impact Assessments Principle 18.Principle 15. Principle 17. Prior and Timely Notification . Precautionary principle Principle 16. Notification of Natural Disaster Principle 19.

Youth Mobilization Principle 22.Principle 20. People under Oppression Principle 24. Women have a Vital Role Principle 21. Warfare . Indigenous Peoples have a Vital Role Principle 23.

Principle 25. Peace. Cooperation between State and People . Resolution of Environmental Disputes Principle 27. Development and Environmental Protection Principle 26.

International Protocols On Sustainability .

• Convention on Biological Diversity • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species • Convention on Law of the Sea • Convention to Combat Desertification • World Trade Organization .• Basel Convention on Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal.

Basel Convention on Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal • The Convention was adopted in 1989 and entered into force on May 5th. .The objectives of this Convention are: to minimize and strictly control trans-boundary movements of hazardous wastes and to dispose of them in an environmentally sound way. . and .To dispose of the hazardous wastes and other wastes generated. . 1992. as close as possible to their source of generation.To minimize the generation of hazardous wastes both in terms of quantity and hazardousness.

The Convention entered into force on December 29th.Convention on Biological Diversity • The Convention was opened for signature on June 5th. • Inspired by the world community's growing commitment to sustainable development. 1993. 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. the Convention on Biological Diversity strives to: • conserve biological diversity. andpromote the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. .encourage the sustainable use of its components.

• These countries act by banning commercial international trade in an agreed list of endangered species and by regulating and monitoring trade in others that might become endangered. . 1975 and now has a membership of 146 countries. entered into force on July 1st.Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species • The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

Convention on Law of the Sea • The Convention. embodies and enshrines the notion that all problems of ocean space are closely interrelated and need to be addressed as a whole. • The Convention includes 320 articles and nine annexes. governing all aspects of ocean space. • environmental control. • marine scientific research. • economic and commercial activities. Today. it is the globally recognized regime dealing with all matters relating to the law of the sea. • transfer of technology. 1994. . such as: • delimitation. which entered into force on November 16th. and • the settlement of disputes relating to ocean matters.

Achieving this objective will involve effective action at all levels. • • • • • . supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements. promoting an integrated approach in developing national strategies to combat desertification. Signatory countries not affected by desertification. encouraging research. analyzing and exchanging information. such as Canada. with a view to contributing to the achievement of sustainable development in affected areas. collecting.Convention to Combat Desertification • • The objective of the Convention to Combat Desertification is to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought in countries experiencing either serious drought or desertification. technology transfer. and assisting in ensuring that adequate financial resources are available for programs to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. are obliged to assist in the implementation of the Convention . capacity building and awareness building. This includes: assisting. in the framework of an integrated approach which is consistent with Agenda 21.