Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e Stephen P. Robbins/Timothy A.

Judge

Chapter 11

Leadership
11-1

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Contrast leadership and management List the traits of effective leaders Define and give examples of the Ohio State leadership dimensions Compare and contrast trait and behavioral theories Describe Fiedler’s contingency model Define the qualities of a charismatic leader Contrast transformational with transactional leadership Identify when leadership may not be necessary Explain how to find and create effective leaders
11-2

Leadership vs. Management Leadership • About coping with change • Establish direction. align resources and inspire Management • About coping with complexity • Brings about order and consistency Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or a set of goals. 11-3 .

Trait Theories • Differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics • Extraversion related strongest to leadership • Conscientiousness and openness to experience also strongly related to leadership • Traits can predict leadership • Traits are better at predicting leader emergence than leader effectiveness 11-4 .

Behavioral Theories • Assumes people can be trained to lead • Researched the behaviors of specific leaders • Provides the basis of design for training programs 11-5 .

Ohio State Studies • Developed two categories of leadership behavior  Initiating structure . well-being. status. work relationships.concern for followers’ comfort. and satisfaction 11-6 . and goals  Consideration .attempts to organize work.

emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job • Employee-oriented behavior leads to higher productivity and satisfaction 11-7 .emphasize interpersonal relations • Production-oriented .University of Michigan Studies • Employee-oriented .

Contingency Theories • Fiedler Model • Leader-Member Exchange Theory • Path-goal Theory 11-8 .

Fiedler Leadership Model • Effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader • Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire used to determine basic leadership style (assumes this style is fixed) 11-9 .

Fiedler Contingency Dimensions • Dimensions define the key situational factors that determine leadership effectiveness:  Leader-member relations  Task structure  Position power 11-10 .

Findings from the Fiedler Model 11-11 .

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory • Leaders do differentiate among followers • Disparities are far from random • Followers with in-group status have:     higher performance ratings lower turnover intentions greater satisfaction with their superiors higher overall satisfaction than those in the out-group 11-12 .

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 11-13 .

Path-Goal Theory • Leader’s job is to provide followers with the information. support or other resources necessary for them to achieve their goals • Four leadership behaviors:     Directive leader Supportive leader Participative leader Achievement-oriented leader 11-14 .

Path-Goal Theory 11-15 .

Charismatic Leadership Theory • Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors 11-16 .

Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders 11-17 .

a new set of values and sets an example for followers to imitate • Engages in emotion-inducing behavior to demonstrate courage and convictions about the vision 11-18 . through words and actions.How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers • Articulates an appealing vision • Communicates high performance expectations and expresses confidence that followers can attain them • Conveys.

The Potential Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership • Leaders don’t necessarily act in the best interest of the organization • Use organizational resources for personal benefit • Remake companies in their own image • Allow self-interest and personal goals to override organization’s goals 11-19 .

motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements • Transformational leaders .inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization 11-20 .Transformational Leadership • Transactional leaders .

Transformational Leader 11-21 .Transactional vs.

Full Range of Leadership Model 11-22 .

How Transformational Leadership Works • Followers are encouraged to be more innovative and creative • Followers pursue more ambitious goals and have more personal commitment to them • Vision engenders commitment from followers and greater sense of trust 11-23 .

and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly • If we’re looking for the best possible leader. know what they believe in and value.Authentic Leadership • Authentic leaders know who they are. it is not enough to be charismatic or visionary – one must also be ethical and create trust on the part of followers 11-24 .

Challenges to the Leadership Construct • Attribution theory of leadership says that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals • Leaders don’t always have an impact on follower outcomes due to organizational variables that can neutralize the leader’s influence or act as substitutes for leadership 11-25 .

Finding and Creating Effective Leaders • Selection:  Personality test to look for traits associated with leadership  Match leaders to situations • Training:  Train those willing to change their behavior  Can teach implementation skills and transformational skills 11-26 .

Implications for Managers • Leaders influence group performance • Leadership success depends somewhat on having “the right stuff” • Leadership depends on the situation • Transformational skills becoming more important • Select and train based on traits and qualities 11-27 .

Summary 1. 6. 3. 2. 8. Contrasted leadership and management Listed the traits of effective leaders Defined and gave examples of the Ohio State leadership dimensions Compared and contrasted trait and behavioral theories Described Fiedler’s contingency model Defined the qualities of a charismatic leader Contrasted transformational with transactional leadership Identified when leadership may not be necessary Explained how to find and create effective leaders 11-28 . 5. 9. 4. 7.

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