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THE NATURE OF RESEARCH

Business Research 1 TTh 7:30 9:00

What is Research?
Careful, critical, disciplined inquiry, varying in technique and method according to the nature and conditions of the problem identified, directed toward the clarification or resolution of a problem. (Good, p. 464) The process of gathering data or information to solve a particular or specific problem in a scientific manner. (Manuel and Medel, p. 5) A systematic study or investigation of something for the purpose of answering questions posed by the researcher. (Cited by Sanchez, p. 2)

Comprehensive Definition
A purposive, systematic and scientific process of gathering, analyzing, classifying, organizing, presenting and interpreting data for the solution of a problem, for prediction, for invention, for the discovery of truth, or for the expansion or verification of existing knowledge, all for the preservation and improvement of the quality of human life.

What are the Purposes of Research?

The purpose of research is to serve man. The goal of research is the good life.

Specific Purposes
To discover new facts about known phenomena. To find answers to problems which are only partially solved by existing methods. Improve existing techniques and develop new instruments or products. To discover previously unrecognized substances or elements. Discover pathways of action of known substances and elements. To order related, valid generalizations into systematized science.

Specific Purposes
To provide basis for decision-making in business, industry, education, government, and in other undertakings. To satisfy the researchers curiosity. To find answers to queries by means of scientific methods. To acquire a better and deeper understanding about one phenomenon. To expand or verify existing knowledge.

Specific Purposes
To improve educational practices for raising the quality of school products. To promote health and prolong life. To provide man with more of his basic needs. To make work, travel, communication faster, easier, and more comfortable.

What are the Characteristics of Research?


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Research is systematic. 9. Research is controlled. 10. Research is empirical. Research is analytical. Research is objective, unbiased, and logical. 11. 6. Research employs hypothesis. 12. 7. Research employs quantitative or statistical 13. methods. 8. Research is original work. Research is done by an expert. Research is accurate investigation, observation and description. Research is patient and unhurried activity. Research requires an effort-making capacity. Research requires courage.

What are the Kinds of Research?


1. According to purpose:
a. Predictive or prognostic research b. Directive research c. Illuminative research

2. According to goal:
a. Basic or pure research b. Applied research

3. According to the levels of investigation:


a. Exploratory research b. Descriptive research c. Experimental research

4. According to scope:
a. Action research

What are the Kinds of Research?


4. According to the type of analysis:
a. Analytical research b. Holistic research

5. According to choice of answers to problems:


a. Evaluation research b. Developmental research

6. According to statistical content:


a. Quantitative research b. Non-quantitative research

8. According to time element:


a. Historical research b. Descriptive research c. Experimental research

What are Some Hindrances to Research?


1. Tradition accepting that customs, beliefs, practices and superstitions are true. 2. Authority accepting without question an opinion given by someone in authority. 3. Inaccurate observation describing wrongly what is actually observed. 4. Overgeneralization establishing a pattern out of a few instances. 5. Selective observation persisting to believe an observed pattern. 6. Made-up information making up information to explain away confusion.

7. Illogical reasoning attributing something to another without any logical basis. 8. Ego-involvement in understanding giving an explanation when one finds himself in an unfavorable situation. 9. Mystifiction attributing to supernatural power the phenomena that cannot be understood. 10. To err is human an attitude that admits the fallability of man. 11. Dogmatism an unwritten policy of institutions or governments prohibiting the study of topics contrary to what is established.

The Scientific Method of Research


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Determining the problem Forming a hypothesis Doing the library search Designing the study Developing the instruments for collecting data Collecting the data Analyzing the data Determining the implications and conclusions from the findings 9. Making recommendations for further research.

Principles of the Scientific Method


Rigid control manipulation of the research variables. Objectivity no bias or partiality in treating results. Systematic organization proper and accurate tabulation of data. Rigorous standards setting up of standards which serve as bases for evaluating findings.