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ACOUSTICS: branch of physics concerned with sound deals with the production, control, transmission, reception, and effects of sound 3 parts (elements): 1. Sound Source ( e.g. human speech, HVAC equipment) 2. Transmission Path (e.g. air, earth, building materials) 3. Receiver (e.g. humans, animals, sensitive medical equipment)

water. most building materials. sound is a rapid fluctuation of air pressure . and the earth physically.DEFINITIONS OF SOUND     physical wave in an elastic medium. usually air the sensation stimulated in the organs of hearing by mechanical radiant energy transmitted as longitudinal pressure waves through the air or other medium a vibration in an elastic medium such as air.

Structural precautions to reduce noise penetrations  . structures and mechanical systems to meet hearing needs  effect of building design on the control of sound in buildings 3 Aspects of Acoustical Design in Buildings 1. Internal acoustics of rooms 3.ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS technology of designing spaces. Planning to keep noise sources as far as possible from quiet area 2.

not desired or objectionable Characteristics of Sound  Audible  Inaudible .TYPES OF SOUND Wanted Sound (speech. considered desirable Unwanted Sound (noise) – annoyance. music) – heard properly.

TERMINOLOGIES Generation . causing the adjacent air to move. as in the transmission of sound or light Sound Wave – a longitudinal pressure wave in air or an elastic medium esp. resulting in a series of pressure waves radiating out from the moving object Wave – a disturbance or oscillation that transfers energy progressively from point to point in a medium or space without advance by the points themselves.sound is generated when an object vibrates. one producing an audible sensation .

TERMINOLOGIES Frequency  the no.g. of times the cycle of compression and rarefaction of air occurs in a given unit of time (e. 1000 cycles in the period of 1 second = 1000 cps = 1000 Hertz)  the no. of cycles per unit time of a wave or oscillation  the no. of complete cycles per second (frequency of vibration)  the rate of oscillation of molecules by sound (frequency of vibration) measured in cycles per second (Hertz)  Pitch – frequency of sound vibration. the predominant frequency of a sound as perceived by the human ear  Vibration – the back and forth motion of a complete cycle  Cycle – full circuit by a displaced particle  Period – the time required for one complete cycle .

250. 2000.  600 – 40.000 Hz – approx. 125.TERMINOLOGIES Frequency  20 – 20.5. 63. called Harmonics  Pure Tone – sound composed only of 1 frequency  Musical sounds are combination of many pure tones  Frequency bands – used to express division of sounds into sections (Octave bands are the most common)  9 Octave Bands – 31. 500. 4000. 8000 Hz . 1000. audio frequency range of human hearing.000 Hz – critical frequency for speech communication  Tone – composed of a fundamental frequency with multiples of the fundamental.

frequency. and velocity:  Λ = c/f Λ = wavelength. 2000. ft. Hz (cps)  Low frequency sounds: characterized by long wavelengths  High frequency sounds: characterized by short wavelengths  Sounds with wavelengths ranging from ½” – 50’ can be heard by humans. approx. 1100 fps in air at normal temperature and pressure Wavelength  Distance between similar points on successive waves. 8000 Hz .2 c = velocity of sound. 1000. 4000. fps f = frequency of sound.TERMINOLOGIES Velocity varies according to the medium of transmission. the distance the sound travels in one cycle  Relationship between wavelength.

TERMINOLOGIES Magnitude  Sound power (watts) – amount of energy produced by a source  Intensity – describes the energy level. unit is watts/cm2  Loudness (what is perceived) – related to the Intensity Level (IL) or Sound Pressure Level (SPL)  The Sound Pressure Level (SPL) is equivalent to the Sound Intensity Level (IL)  Intensity Level is expressed in decibels  Decibel – dimensionless unit used to express the ratio of two numerical values of a logarithmic scale .

sound absorbing ceilings Reflections – sound foci/diffused Reverberation – prolongation of sound. persistence .some absorb low frequency energy. some absorb high frequency energy Noise Reduction by Absorption Noise levels in a room are highest for a given source if the room’s surfaces are primarily sound reflecting.ROOM ACOUSTICS SOUND INDOORS – ACOUSTICS OF ROOM Sound Absorption .g. lowest if there are large areas of sound absorbing materials (e.