Gas Exchange Process

VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY

Volumetric efficiency is affected by the following fuel, engine design, and engine operating variables :
I. Fuel type, fuellair ratio, fraction of fuel vaporized in the intake system, and fuel heat of vaporization

2. Mixture temperature as influenced by heat transfer
3. Ratio of exhaust to inlet manifold pressures 4. Compression ratio 5. Engine speed

6. Intake and exhaust manifold and port design
7. Intake and exhaust valve geometry, size, lift, and timings

VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY OF AN IDEAL CYCLE .

PHASE. AND FUEL AIR RATIO .EFFECT OF FUEL COMPOSITION.

EFFECT OF INLET AND EXHAUST PRESSURE RATIO AND COMPRESSION RATIO .

Combined Quasi-Static and Dynamic Effects FRICITONAL LOSSES .

Pressure variation due to engine load .

Ram Effect The pressure in the inlet manifold varies during each cylinders intake process due to the piston velocity variation. in part to take advantage to ram phenomenon. . This effect becomes progressively greater as engine speed is increased. the inertia of the gas in the intake system as the intake valve is closing increases the pressure in the port and continues the charging process as the piston slows down around BC and starts the compression stroke. valve open area variation. The inlet valve is closed some 40 to 60" after BC. is almost entirely determined by the pressure level in the inlet port during the short period before the inlet valve is closed. The mass of air inducted into the cylinder. and the unsteady gas-flow effects that result from these geometric variations.' At higher engine speeds. and hence the volumetric efficiency.

a reverse flow of fresh charge from the cylinder back into the intake can occur as the cylinder pressure rises due to piston motion toward TC. . It is an inevitable consequence of the inlet valve closing time chosen to take advantage of the ram effect at high speeds.REVERSE FLOW INTO THE INTAKE Because the inlet valve closes after the start of the compression stroke. This reverse flow is largest at the lowest engine speeds.

When they aid the process by reducing the pressure in the exhaust port toward the end of the exhaust process. the exhaust system is said to be tuned. These pressure waves may aid or inhibit the gas exchange processes. The pressure waves interact with the pipe junctions and ends in the exhaust manifold and pipe. . These pressure waves propagate at the local sound speed relative to the moving exhaust gas.TUNING The pulsating flow from each cylinder's exhaust process sets up pressure waves in the exhaust system. These interactions cause pressure waves to be reflected back toward the engine cylinder .

Instantaneous pressures in the intake and exhaust manifold .

and Valve Area. and Timing . Lift.Variation with Speed.

.

.

.

FLOW THROUGH VALVES .

Poppet Valve Geometry .

.

Flow Rate and Discharge Coefficients .

.

.

.

RESIDUAL GAS FRACTION .

EXHAUST GAS FLOW RATE AND TEMPERATURE VARIATION .

.

.

SCAVENGING IN TWO-STROKE CYCLE ENGINES .

.

.

Scavenging Parameters and Models .

.

FLOW THROUGH PORTS .

.

.

.

.

SUPERCHARGING AND TURBOCHARGING .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful