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EDDY CURRENT TESTING

A NEW BEGINNING

By: Jabran Younas


Applications

Metal Alloy sorting Insulation Cracks


thickness Thickness Seams
Heat treat Porosity
condition Nonmetallic Corrosion
coating Erosion
Heat damage thickness
Segregation
vibration
Inclusion
Diameter of
Plating
tubing or bar
thickness
stock
Cladding
Thickness
Resistance Inductive Reactance Impedance

R 2
X L
2
Z 2
Ohm's Law

R=ρL/A
Resistivity (Ohm-cm)
Conductivity (mho or % IACS)
Ohm's Law

Faraday Law
Ohm's Law

Faraday Law
Є emf= NΔφ
Δt

Єemf=Induced emf
N= Number of Turns
Δφ= Change in Flux
Ohm's Law

Faraday Law

Lenz’s Law The direction of induced current is such


as to oppose the cause producing it.
Ohm's Law B=μo/2π x I/r

Faraday Law

Lenz’s Law

Biot Savart’s
Law
Coils Coils
AC

Coils Magnetic Field

Coils

Coils Coils

Coils Magnetic Field


Coils Magnetic Field

Eddy Currents Eddy


Magnetic Field Currents

Conducting Material Conducting Material


Crack Detection

Magnetic Field
From Test Coil

Magnetic Field
From
Eddy Currents

Crack
Eddy Currents
Depth of Penetration & Skin Effect

• Eddy current density is greatest


at surface

• Reduces exponentially with depth

• At standard D of P = 1/e (37%)


of surface value

• δ = 50 ……ρ ….

μr f
Effect Of Frequency
Effect of conductivity
Effect of Permeability
Standard Depth
of
Depth

Depth
Penetration
(Skin Depth)

1/e or 37 %
of surface density
Eddy Current Density Eddy Current Density
High Frequency Low Frequency
High Conductivity Low Conductivity
High Permeability Low Permeability
Discontinuities

Crack parallel to eddy


Currents - not detected

Crack interrupts eddy


Currents - detected
Edge effect

• Edges produce signals


just like cracks and
mislead inspector

• Different techniques
can be used to avoid
edge effect
Inductive Coupling
Lift Off and Fill Factor

Usually, 70-90% "fill-factor" is targeted for reliable inspection


Phase Lag
Eddy Current Variables Comparison
A Typical ECT Instrument
Types of Probes
External
Surface Probe
Probe

Internal
Probe
Mode of 0peration
Absolute Differential
Sensitive to both sudden and Not Sensitive gradual changes
gradual changes in properties. in properties
Easy to interpret Difficult to interpret

Show total length of long flaws Detect only ends of long flaws

Sensitive to drift due to Less Sensitive to drift due to


temperature changes temperature changes
Sensitive to probe wobble Less Sensitive to probe wobble

Single Coil Pair of coils

Absolute value of impedance Changes in impedance or


and induced voltage is induced voltage is mesured
measured
Eddy Current Probes
Eddy Current Test Equipments

Digital Meter Analogue Meter

Multi-Freq Equipments
Calibration Standards
Testing Procedure
• Balance on sound portion
• Set Sensitivity (Drive Level & Gain)
• Set Frequencies
• Draw Calibration Curve
• Take signal with constant speed
• Note Phase lag and amplitude for each
indication
Effect of frequency on
signal
Effect of Frequency

44khz 22khz

5khz
Wobble Dent

Correct Speed
High Speed
Signal Filtering

Signal+ Noise Correct Filter is Incorrect Filter is


used used
Stripper
Thickness Monitoring
Methodology
Stripper Tube Signal
Selection of Frequency
Selection of Probe
Defect Sizing

10% OD
shown 36%
OD
Defect Sizing
60% changed
80% OD to 78% near
support

60% OD

Support

60% OD

80% OD
Defect Sizing
Wrong Indications
RFT Theory
RFT Zones
RFT Signals
Effect of Support plate
Tube Inspection
Depth Curve
Shielding Effect
Magnet

Non
Magnetic
Strip

Card Board Magnetic


Strip