Semester 1, 2013-2014 Instructor: Ly Slesman @ Sulaiman Mohd Ali

Method %

Course Work: Midterm Exam Research Report Presentation of the Report/Exercise/Quizzes Class Participation & Attendance
Final Examination Total

60 25 20
10 5 40 100

Week 1: 10th Sept. 2013

is Social Research?

Alternative to social research

important of Social Science? What is Science?
 Scientific Enquiry/Method

of Social Research

 

Research guide decisions. Research helps individuals/leaders/policy-makers to make the best choice out of available alternatives.
 How to reduce crime rate  How to jump-start your economy  Why democracies is the best form of governance relative to the communism?...private vs. collective property ownership…  Why more investment/foreign-aid does not always work in low-qualities governance countries?  Why open trade regime make everyone better off?.. Exportoriented economic approach to national development.

   

BUT… What is research? What do you understand about research? What constitute research?

 Social Research is a collection of methods and methodologies that researchers apply systematically to produce scientifically based knowledge about the social world.INTRODUCTION: SCIENCE & RESEARCH What is research?  Research is a way of going out finding answers to questions. .  Research is a process through which new knowledge is discovered.

philosophical (theoretical) assumptions. measuring and observing aspects of social life. and political issues of the enterprise of social researchers who use methods.  Methodology encompass Methods  Methodology: understanding the social organizational context. ethical principles.e. gathering and refining data.INTRODUCTION: SCIENCE & RESEARCH  Methodology is the a subfield of epistemology (i.  It is the science of finding out. the science of knowing). and reporting on results. analyzing the data.  Method: sets of specific techniques for selecting cases.  It is the technical/scientific tool/instruments that allow researcher to find out or answer his research .

INTRODUCTION: SCIENCE & RESEARCH  In a social research process.  Repeat steps over and over again  Combines theories/ideas with facts in a systematic way  Use the imagination and creativity  Plan and organize carefully  Select the appropriate technique to address the research question  Treat people in the study ethically and morally  Communicate with others  After all. it is the process of discovery.  Follow rules. . researchers  Think logically.

media.INTRODUCTION: SCIENCE & RESEARCH Alternative to Social Science  Knowledge comes not always from research but also the alternatives sources: authority. and systematic processes than the alternatives.  It’s more likely to be true with fewer errors. . personal experiences. However  Social research is a more structured. organized. or even common sense. tradition.

& other sources of Islamic law). So there’s no issue here regarding limitations.  Authoritative publication  In Islam. we’re obliged to do so (i.e.INTRODUCTION: SCIENCE & RESEARCH Alternatives…Cont. Galileo discover on rounding earth v.  Scientific research can sometime refute. E.s. g. Tradition  Tradition is the authority of the past.  Something true in the past may no longer be true now . Authority  We accept something as being true because someone in authority say it’s true. Qur’an & Sunnah.  Limitation (Western perspective)  Overestimate/reliance and misused (experts can be wrong). Church/common belief at the time that the earth is flat.

Gambler’s fallacy: after series of losses.g. (probabilistic sense: 5050) Media Myth  Beside informing the public  Media can create prejudice/stereotypes (e.g.g. I have a better chance of winning.  E.e. what make sense)  E. . it makes sense that crime is lower in countries with capital punishment.INTRODUCTION: SCIENCE & RESEARCH Alternatives…Cont. Common Sense  Ordinary reasoning or common sense (i. in the US most people receive welfare benefit are black)  Forum for competing interest to win support from the public.

 Selective observation: Making observation in a way that it reinforces preexisting thinking. or reaching a decision and ending an investigation. Personal Experiences (Seeing is believing)  Has a strong impact and is a forceful source of knowledge. or thing to color one’s evaluating all in a .  Premature closure: Making a judgment.  Halo effect: Allowing the prior reputation of persons. places.  4 Limitations  Overgeneralization: statements that go far beyond what can be justified based on the data or empirical observations that one has. before one has the amount or depth of evidence required by scientific standards. rather than observing in a natural and balanced manner.INTRODUCTION: SCIENCE & RESEARCH Alternatives…Cont.

and instruments for gaining knowledge. psychology. .  The system:  evolves and slowly changing over time. techniques.  combines assumptions about the nature of the world and knowledge  is sets of procedures.INTRODUCTION: SCIENCE  Natural science (physics. sociology…)  Science refers to both a system for producing knowledge and the knowledge produced from that system. mathematics…)  Social science (political science.

 Data/Empirical analysis: what can be observed and experience directly through human sense or indirectly using techniques that extend the senses. accept.  Simply means a set of statements that predict things that will occur in the future and explain things that happen in the past. or refute) about the social world being observed.  Two pillar of science:  Logic  Observation  A scientific understanding of the world must make sense and corresponding to what we observe.INTRODUCTION: SCIENCE & RESEARCH  Science is often characterized as logico-empirical. predict. .  Three major of social scientific enterprise:  Social theory: a system of interconnected ideas that condenses and organizes knowledge about the social world.  Data collection: empirical evidences or information that one gathers/collects carefully according to rule or procedures.  Analyze the pattern exist in the data and make inference (i. It can be qualitative or quantitative data.e. compare.

beliefs. and open to unexpected observation/new ideas/particular point of view.  Communalism: scientific knowledge must be shared with .  Universalism: research is to be judged based on the scientific merit (regardless of who/from where that conduct the research)  Organized skepticism: new idea/evidence are intensely scrutinized  Disinterestedness: scientists must be neutral.Role of Scientific Community  Scientific community: a collection of people who share a system of attitudes. and values that governs how scientist conduct their research. impartial. principles.  Norm of scientific community: a set of informal rules. and rules that sustains the production and advance of scientific knowledge.

Role of Scientific Community  Scientific method refers to the ideas.  Two way withheld of identity: It is unknown to each sides (the researcher who conduct research and the one who review it). and approach that the scientific community use.  It’s a means to disseminate new ideas and findings within the scientific community. . rules.  Blind review: a process of judging the merits of a research.  Scientific attitude is a way of thinking about and looking at the world that reflects a commitment to the norms and values of the scientific community.  It is a loose consensus within scientific community.  Scholarly journal article is an article in a specialized publication that has members of the scientific community as its primary audience. techniques.

STEPS IN (SOCIAL) SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHOD Asking Question Asking New Question Identify Important Factors Reconsidering the Theory Formulating Hypothesis Working with Hypothesis Collecting Relevant Information Testing the Hypothesis .

STEPS IN (SOCIAL) SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHOD Asking Question  I wonder what would happen if… Asking New Question Identify Important Factors  Question come out of your curiosity/idea/hunch…Is increase in soft-skill training really lead to increase in IIUM employability? Reconsidering the Theory Formulating Hypothesis  Example: Can democratic institutions lead to better economic performance? Working with Hypothesis Collecting Relevant Information  Good question lead to good hypothesis Testing the Hypothesis . it increase in gross domestic Collecting with productWorking (GDP) overtime?.e.. Relevant Hypothesis Information  Refer to theories and past studies/research (i.. Testing the literature) Hypothesis .STEPS IN (SOCIAL) SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHOD Asking Question Asking New Question Identify Important Factors  After question is asked (e. Can democratic institutions lead to better economic performance?) Identify the Factors:  Reconsidering What are the factors defining democratic Formulating the Theory Hypothesis institutions: free & fair election... education. constraint on chief-executive…  What do we mean by better economic performance?.

” Information  A good hypothesis (which comes from a Testing the Hypothesis testable question) lead to good study. Formulating Reconsidering It may look like this: the Theory Hypothesis “Country possess credible democratic institution tend to perform better economically than countries with lowcredible democratic and nonCollecting Working with Relevant Hypothesis democratic institutions.STEPS IN (SOCIAL) SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHOD  What is hypothesis: “Educated guess” Identify Asking New  Hypothesis result when the (research) Important Question Factors question is transformed into statement that express the relationship between variables like an “if…then” statement. Asking Question .

economic performance and democratic institutions) Asking New Question Identify Important Factors Asking Question  You need to collect information/empirical data that will confirm or refute your hypothesis you set out in the earlier stage  Measures/indicators of democratic institutions.g. economic performance… Reconsidering the Theory Formulating Hypothesis Working with Hypothesis Collecting Relevant Information Testing the Hypothesis .STEPS IN (SOCIAL) SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHOD  Hypothesis posit a clear relationship between different factors (e.

Reconsidering the Theory Formulating Hypothesis Asking New Question Identify Important Factors After collecting empirical data. the effects of the controlled factors under study.e.  Measures/indicators of democratic institutions.g.STEPS IN (SOCIAL) SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHOD  Say hello to Inferential statistics  a set of tools that allow the researchers to Asking Question separate the effects of an isolated factor(s) (i. you need to test your hypothesis so you can make inference (based on the outcome of your hypothesis testing). e. democratic institutions) from effects that owing to something else or luck/chance. Testing the economic performance… Hypothesis Working with Hypothesis Collecting Relevant Information .

e. well-research) may confirm/refute hence modify the theory Working with Hypothesis  Interpret your result Collecting Relevant Information  Results may/may not confirm Testing the Hypothesis your hypothesis . . Identify Asking Question Important  Can education help democratic Factors governance to deliver better economic performance? Reconsidering the Theory  Take a stock on what guide your research in the first place. Formulating Hypothesis  It’s Theory !  Your finding (i.STEPS IN (SOCIAL) SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHOD  A simple last step in this simple Asking New Question scientific enquiry is to ask new question.


TYPES OF SOCIAL RESEARCH  Generally there are two approaches to social research:  Quantitative Social Research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena via statistical. mathematical or computational techniques (Wikipedia).g. sociological & anthropological research (ethnographic research—research on culture) .  E. case studies.  Qualitative Social Research is a social/behavioral research that explores the processes that underlie human behavior using exploratory techniques such as interview. and other relative personal technique. surveys.

Quantitative Social Research  Measure the objective facts  Focus on variable  Reliability is the key  Value free  Theory & data are separate  Independent of context  Many cases. subject  Statistical analysis  Researcher is detached TYPES OF SOCIAL RESEARCH  Qualitative Social Research  Construct social reality Focus on interactive process. events  Authenticity is key  Values are present & explicit  Theory & data are fused  Situationally constrained  Few cases. subjects  Thematic analysis  Researcher is involved .

 Qualitative Research: includes case studies. E.  Descriptive Research: describe the characteristics of an existing phenomena. Census survey  Correlational Research: provide a picture of events that are currently happening and have occurred in the past.  True Experimental Research: assign the participants into groups: treatment groups (treatment variable/condition) and the non-treatment base on some criteria. there are two types of research methods:  Non-experimental Research Methods: includes a varieties of different methods that describe relationship between variables. Social research method is primarily differed based on:  Nature of the question being asked  The method used to answer it  The degree of precision the method brings to answering the question.g. . TYPES OF SOCIAL RESEARCH METHODS  Generally.  Experimental Research Methods: the research methods that seek to establish a causal relation among variable. ethnography and historical studies.  It is beyond a mere descriptive to include the likely relationship between events/variables.

Week 2: 12th Sept. Research and Practice . 2013 Theory.

 It explain things with minimal complexity.  A good theory is a parsimonious theory. .  Parsimony means simpler/simple. and better conducted study.What is Theory?  Social Theory: a system of interconnected ideas that condenses and organizes knowledge about the social world. easier to understand.  An awareness of how theory fits into research process would lead to better research design.  Simply means a set of statements that predict things that will occur in the future and explain things that happen in the past. Less complex theories is likely to be good theory. with no redundant and excess elements.

For example:  It cannot determine whether capitalism is better than socialism.  What it can do is to determine how these system performs in term of some set of agreed-upon criteria.Social Theory. For example.  Social scientists focus on how things actually are and why.  Science does not involve solving the debate on value.  Their speculation about why.  And their ideas about how things ought to be.  Human dignity and freedom [Agreed way of measure these terms]  Economic activities [How to measure this]  Once the definition and measurement is agreed. Not Philosophy or Belief  Social theory has to do with what is not with what should be. the finding is limited to such measure.  Social philosophers liberally  Mixed their observations of what happened around them. .

Ideology  Ideology a nonscientific quasi-theory.  Makes normative claims  Opposite is true for scientific theories.Social Theory vs. relationships among concepts.  It is a closed system that resists change  Cannot be falsified with empirical data. concepts. and explanations. with assumptions. . often based on political values or faith.

Clusters  Simple vs. broad)  Relationship  Forms of relationship  Proposition & Hypothesis  Unit of analysis .Components of Social Theory There are four parts of social theory:  Assumption  Concepts  Level of abstraction  Single vs. Complex  Scope (narrow vs.

or a particular phenomenon. “voters are rational”. “everyone desires for material comfort”.  It is often hidden or unstated.  It is basically statement about the natures of things that are not observable or testable.  E. It is also can be called postulates (or axioms): fundamental assertions (on which a theories is grounded).Assumption    Theories contain built-in assumptions. .g.  E.g. social reality. “everyone care for their own self-interest” or “maximization of self-interest”.  We accept them as true for our starting point. nature of human being. Assumptions is an untested starting point or belief in a theory that is necessary to build a theoretical explanation.

20)…Which one to win? Options Pattern of votes B: 5 Result 5 $20 vs. $5 A: 5 C: 20 $10 vs.  (2) Voter’s preferences are single-peaked. $5 A: 5 B: 10 C: 10 10 . $20 A: 10 B: 10 C: 20 10 $10 vs. Baharum (RM. Let apply to three friends who choose restaurant to eat: Ahmad (RM. Example:  Median voter theory (MVT) states a majority rule voting system will select the outcome most preferred by the median voter.10).  (3) Voters always vote for their true preferences  (4) Median voter theory applies best to majoritarian election system.  Assumptions:  (1) Voters can place all election alternatives along a one-dimensional political spectrum.  How these assumptions work to allow MVT to predict. (means that voters choose alternatives closest to their most preferred outcome). 5). Chow (RM.

speed.Concept  Concept is a building block of a theory.  These Concepts are called Variables . year of schooling. distance)  Higher-level abstract concepts (e.  E. aggression is more abstarct that hit.  Lower-level abstract concepts (e.g. city center…)  Other types of concepts may take a range of value: e. employability (N). Voter (VOT). inflation (p). Y = f (L. yell).  Level of Abstraction concept varies by level of their level of abstraction. push. concept clusters. suburbs.g. election (ELEC).  Abstract concepts refers to aspects of the world we do not directly or easily experience but they help organize thought and expand understanding.  E. democracy (DEM). If we want to explain urban decay (cluster concept) we would need a number of concepts like Urban expansion.g. economic growth. amount of income. K. Concept are rarely used in isolation.  Single vs.g.g. bottom. T). shout. welfare (Y)….  It is an idea expressed as a symbol or in words. urbanization.

 They then group three concept together (aggregate) and define type of regime: Totalitarian (low on all three) vs. free elections with universal suffrage. Regular.Concept…Cont. Complex Concepts.  Simple vs. Democracy (high on all three).  Some concepts are simple and vary (change) along a single dimension. . 2. while other have multiple dimension. 3. A group of scholars define democracy along three dimensions: 1. An elected legislative body that controls government Freedom of expression and association.g.  E.  Classify them into category.  Different way to approach complex concepts:  Combine many simple concept to form a meaningful concept.

labor. . Karoshi (death by overwork). E.  Example of concepts with broad scope: physical aggression. Other are broad and applied many context.  Some are narrow and applied to a specific social setting.  Narrow concept tent to be less abstract. Concept vary by scope. institutions.  It is an abstract elements representing classess of phenomenon within the field of study.Concept…Cont.g.  Scope. Economic growth.

structural. K(+). . and what kind of those relationship (correlation.g. or causal relation.  It will inform us whether concepts relate to one another (weakly/strongly.  E. or other). Production Theory: Y = f (L(+). how and why it is related or not related. negatively or positively). social theory specify relationship among concepts (or variables). T(+))  Output (Y) is produced using labor (L) and capital (K) input plus technology (T).Relationship  In addition to making assumptions and providing concepts.

Why? Because better democratic institutions ensure people freedom to selfdetermination (they can choose what best for themselves: profit maximize.  E.  Hypothesis is an empirically testable version of a proposition.Proposition and Hypothesis  Theories often contain propositions or statements about the connection among concepts. Theory: fair and better quality of democratic institutions lead to better economic performance. poverty is a cause of bad economic management/low economic growth. the powerful elites…) [rule of law] which lead to increase the incentive to do what best for themselves.g.g. i.  Proposition is a theoretical statement that specifies the relationship between two/more concepts and says something about the kind of relationship it is. better protection on their property rights. . no expropriation from authority.e.  E.

firms… . sub-national or even organization. organizations..  Concept like democracy can be applied across nations.Unit of Analysis  Many different unit/level within any analysis:  Individual  Groups  National  Sub-national  Institutions.

Elements of Social Theory…summary Assumptions/postulat es Propositions Hypothesis Theory .

Aspects/Form of Social Theory  There are four major aspects of social theory: 1. Focus of the theory [Substantive or Formal Theory] 4. Structural or Interpretative] . Form of Explanation [Causal. Micro or the Middle (Meso)] 3. Direction of theorizing [Deductive or Inductive] 2. Level of analysis [Macro.

Direction of theorizing  Researchers approach the building and testing of theory from two direction: Deductive & Inductive Reasoning. Relationship between study habit and performance in the exam…Deductive approach: .  E.g.  Deductive Reasoning: you begin with abstract concepts or a theoretical proposition that outlines the logical connection among concepts and then move toward concrete empirical evidence.

 Both of these activities should be increased by exposure to information before the exam. we need to make/collect relevant observations (data) to test our hypothesis.  We can extract the hypothesis that depict the positive relationship between numbers of hours spend studying and the grade earn on the exam.Deductive approach how it works  [Part a] We know that doing well in exam reflects student ability to recall and manipulate information.  [Part b] Then.  So it is positive relationship.  [Part c] compare the hypothesis and the observations…we may need statistical methods [hypothesis testing] .  The shaded area represent hundred/thousands of data on student’s hours of study & grade they receive. .

Another example: Deductive Reasoning [Traditional Model of Science] .

Direction of theorizing  Inductive Reasoning: An approach to developing or confirming a theory that begins with concrete empirical evidence and works toward more abstract concepts and theoretical relationships. (see figure below)  E.  You begin with observing the empirical world and then reflect on what is taking place.g. Relationship between study habit and performance in the exam…Inductive approach: . and move in a more abstract ways towards theoretical concepts and propositions… Theory generate through Inductive approach can be called Grounded theory.

Inductive approach how it works  [Part a] Curious about the relationship between study habit and grade earned.  [Part b] We notice the pattern that:  Student spend time studying between 1-15 hours. we can draw some tentative conclusion.  . you collect the data on student hours spend and their grade.  But between 15-25 hours.  However. when he go for more than 25 hours. each hour increase would produce slightly lower grade.  We do so because we do not test it but just observe out of our collected data. each successively hours would yield higher grade. grade start to increase [Part c] from pattern identify from the data.  Look for the pattern exist in the data.


processes. [Link micro & macro level]  E.  Macro-level theory: focus on macro-level of social life and process that occur over long duration. and structures at a midlevel of social life and events operating over moderate duration. face-to-face interaction and encounter among small groups/individuals.…  Meso-level theory: focus on the relations. world region. colonial experience. study on black-white race relation. movements and communities.g. study on the relationship between economic inequality and schooling.g.g. [larger aggregate level]  E. [individual levels]  E.g. organization.Level of Analysis  Micro-level theory: focus on the micro-level of social life that occur over short duration. social institutions. major sector of society. .  E.  E.g.

Focus of theory and form of theoretical explanation   Theory can be on specific (on substantive issue/topic) or general (on the process and structure that span across area).  Interpretative Explanation: attempt to explain or discover the meaning of an event or practice by placing it within a special social context.  Structural Explanation: explain social process/factors/ events that take place within a larger structure. . Theoretical explanation come in many forms:  Simple explanation that logical argument that tell you why something take a specific form or occur.  Causal Explanation (Cause & Effects relationship): explain about causal relationship between two or more things.


Links Between Theory and Research    In the deductive model of reasoning. research is used to test the theory In the inductive model of reasoning. .  Sometime theory are modified in a way that serve the tool for researcher to suit his/her study on a specific issue understudy. theories are developed from the analysis of research data. empirical data/finding are cited to make case for theoretical argument. How in practice theory is linked with research in the actual scientific enquiry?  Sometime theoretical issues are introduced merely as a background for empirical analysis.  In other cases.

How to Do your Research Report .

E. Exploring research.  Form your group compose of 5 persons Discuss among yourself a specific issue related to Political Economy (or International Political Economy) that your group intend to research on.. follow the following:  Read Chapter 13 of Salkind. NJ: .g. N. (2006). J. Upper Saddle River.:  Political rights and Inequality  Economic freedom and economic performance.  Government stability and rule of law… How to Do your Research Report  After deciding on what issue your group intend to do.

discuss it with me. Times New Roman)]:  Cover Page [Title of your Research (Research Topic) and Group member names and other necessary Info]  Briefly state what your group want to do:  Briefly introduce the issues [one-two paragraph]  Introduce Research question [one paragraph]  State your problem statement. [will have a session for this]  Due date: 13 December 2013  Submit both hard copy [in class] and through email: sleman88@yahoo. One page for cover page and 1.5 pages. that’s doable  If no. double-space.How to Do your Research Report  Then do the following:  Your must briefly provide the following [ . [one paragraph]  Answer this question: Is this research issue can be measured with the data?  If Yes. and not clear.5 pages for your research issues (font 12.

IV. How to Do your Research Report Format of your Research Report: I. V.…) there’re no/unsatisfactory answers to the research issue at hand] Statement of your research objectives [what is your object in researching the issue] I. II. Brief Review of the Literature Data and Methodology Finding. Interpretations and Implication Conclusion Reference . based on your reading on the issues from journal articles.e. books. IV. I. VI. III. Research Hypothesis Definition of the relevant terms [How you define it and operationalize/measure it with relevant indicators/measurement] II. Introduction Problem Statement Rational for the research [why is it important that you think (i. III.

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