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CLASSIFICATION OF STRESS
• POSITIVE STRESS • NEGATIVE STRESS • ACUTE STRESS • CHRONIC STRESS
WHAT CAUSES STRESS ?
• LIFE EVENTS SUCH AS DIVORCE OR SEPARATION, DEATH OF A LOVED ONE, THE BIRTH OF A CHILD, MOVING, A MAJOR FINANCIAL SETBACK, EMPLOYMENT CHANGES OR BECOMING THE VICTIM OF A CRIME OR NATURAL DISASTER • DAILY EVENTS SUCH AS TRAFFIC CONGESTION, LONG COMMUTES, WORKING OVERTIME, DEADLINES, PERSONAL CONFLICTS, CAR TROUBLE, JOB STRESS, AND JUGGLING HOUSEHOLD CHORES AND CHILDCARE • ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS SUCH AS POLLUTION, WEATHER EXTREMES OR EXCESSIVE NOISE • PHYSICAL STRESSORS SUCH AS PHYSICAL INJURY, CHRONIC PAIN, TIRING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY (SUCH AS TRAVELING), AND UNSATISFIED PHYSICAL NEEDS SUCH AS HUNGER, THIRST OR LACK OF SLEEP Continued….
7. 12.1. DEATH OF A SPOUSE DIVORCE MARITAL SEPARATION IMPRISONMENT DEATH OF A CLOSE RELATIVE PERSONAL INJURY OR ILLNESS MARRIAGE FIRED FROM A JOB MARITAL RECONCILIATION RETIREMENT ILLNESS OF A RELATIVE PREGNANCY SEXUAL PROBLEMS BIRTH OR ADOPTION BUSINESS READJUSTMENT Continued… . 15. 9. 8. 10. 4. 11. 13. 6. 3. 5. 14. 2.
29. 19.16. 22. 18. 27. 17. 28. Change in financial status Death of a close friend Change to different work Increased arguments with spouse Mortgage or loan for major purchase Foreclosure on mortgage or loan Change in job responsibilities Child leaving home Problems with in-laws Outstanding personal achievement Spouse begins or stops work Begin or end school Change in living conditions Changing personal habits Problems with your boss Continued… . 20. 21. 26. 24. 25. 30. 23.
CHANGE IN EATING HABITS 39. CHANGE IN SLEEPING HABITS 37. MORTGAGE OR LOAN 36. CHANGE IN RESIDENCE OR SCHOOL RECREATION 34. ANY FESTIVALS 41. MINOR LAW VIOLATION . CHANGE IN WORK 32. CHURCH OR SOCIAL ACTIVITIES 35. CHANGE IN FAMILY GATHERINGS 38.31. HOURS/CONDITIONS 33. VACATION 40.
PREDISPOSING FACTORS FOR STRESS • • • • • • • • GENETIC FACTORS INABILITY TO ADAPT INADEQUATE RELAXATION RESPONSE RESPONSE ACTIVITY VARIATIONS AGE PERSONALITY ISOLATION Environment .
SYMPTOMS OF STRESS • Behavioral symptoms • Physical symptoms .
BEHAVIORAL SYMPTOMS • TOO MUCH SLEEP (HYPERSOMNIA) OR TOO LITTLE SLEEP (INSOMNIA) • NIGHTMARES • NERVOUS HABITS LIKE NAILBITING OR FOOT-TAPPING • DECREASED SEX DRIVE • TEETH GRINDING • IRRITABILITY OR IMPATIENCE • CRYING OVER MINOR INCIDENTS • DREADING GOING TO WORK OR OTHER ACTIVITIES .
PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS • MIGRAINE OR TENSION HEADACHES • DIGESTIVE PROBLEMS LIKE HEARTBURN OR DIARRHEA • SHALLOW BREATHING OR SIGHING • COLD OR SWEATY PALMS • JAW PAIN.SHOULDER PAIN . NECK PAIN.
10. 4. 5. 12. 9. 13. 6. 8. Excessive fatigue Gastric disturbance Withdraw from social life Menstrual problems Speech difficulties More impatient Headaches Infertility Ulcers Nail biting Grinding teeth Low blood sugar High blood sugar . 7.EARLY WARNING SIGNS OF STRESS 1. 3. 11. 2.
EARLY WARNING SIGNS OF STRESS-2 14. Muscle aches 24. Sudden weight loss 17. Repeated influenza 22. Low blood pressure 19. Chest pain . High blood pressure 20 . Tired but can't sleep 16.Lack of coordination 21. Hair loss 25. Need more sleep 15. Repeated colds 23. Sudden weight gain 18.
Forgetfulness Nervous talking Lower back pain Loss of appetite Increased appetite High cholesterol High triglycerides . 2. 7. 4.EARLY WARNING SIGNS OF STRESS-3 1. 5. 3. 6.
jaw.Physical signs and symptoms of stress • • • • • • • • • • • • • Increased heart rate Pounding heart Elevated blood pressure Sweaty palms Tightness of the chest. and back muscles Headache Diarrhea Constipation Urinary hesitancy Trembling Being easily startled Chronic pain and Dysponea • Twitching • Stuttering and other speech difficulties • Nausea • Vomiting • Sleep disturbances • Fatigue • Shallow breathing • Dryness of the mouth or throat • Susceptibility to minor illness • Cold hands • Itching . neck.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Emotional signs and symptoms of stress Irritability Angry outbursts Hostility Depression Jealously Restlessness Withdrawal Decreased perception of positive Experience opportunities Narrowed focus Obsessive rumination Reduced self-esteem emotional response reflexes Weakened positive emotional response reflexes • Anxiousness • Diminished initiative • Feelings of unreality or over-alertness • Reduction of personal involvement with others • Lack of interest • Tendency to cry • Being critical of others • Self-deprecation • Nightmares • Impatience • Reduced self-esteem • Insomnia • Changes in eating habits .
Cognitive/Perceptual Signs and Symptoms of Stress • • • • • • Forgetfulness Preoccupation Blocking Blurred vision Errors in judging distance Diminished or exaggerated fantasy life Reduced creativity Lack of concentration Diminished productivity Lack of attention to detail Orientation to the past • • • • • • Decreased psychomotor reactivity and coordination • Attention deficit • Disorganization of thought • Negative self-esteem • Diminished sense of meaning in life • Lack of control/need for too much control • Negative self-statements and negative evaluation of experience .
) • Increased alcohol or drug use • Carelessness • Under-eating • Over-eating • Nervous laughter • Compulsive behavior • Impatience • Withdrawal • Listlessness • Hostility • Accident-proneness .road rage.Behavioral Signs and Symptoms of Stress • Increased smoking • Aggressive behaviors (such as driving . etc.
Signs of Stress in The Workplace • Stress Arousal Stage • Persistent irritability and anxiety • Bruxism and/or Insomnia • Occasional forgetfulness and/or inability to concentrate • Stress Resistance Stage • Absenteeism or tardiness for work • Tired and fatigued for no reason • Procrastination and indecision • Social withdrawal with cynicism • Resentful. . indifferent. etc. defiant • Increased use of coffee. alcohol. tobacco.
• Loss of self-esteem and a lack of control are two very common themes.Jobs and stress • The TUC identifies four main causes: 1. for instance): 2. Relationships (poor relations with colleagues. for child care facilities. lack of job control): 4. impersonal treatment). 3. lack of communication. excessive overtime. Environmental (noise. open plan offices. overcrowding. . too much/little work. job insecurity). Contractual (low pay. shift work. Job designed (boring work.
. Repetitive jobs that under utilise the workers abilities can produce stress. The workload for mothers is particularly heavy because not only do they work outside of the home but also do most of the chores at home (Frankenhaeuser.Demands of the task • Excessive workloads are associated with increased rates of accidents and health problems (Mackay & Cox. 1991). The evaluation of an employee's job or performance is also particularly stressful for both the supervisor and the employee (Quick and Quick. 1984). 1978).
1982).Responsibility for people's lives People working in the health professions need to take many life and death decisions instantly and experience appalling things. The same applies to the police and fire fighters. . this leads to feelings of emotional exhaustion (Maslach & Jackson.
2. Perceived insufficient control. 1978). 1987). The physical environment of the job. . temperature.Stress can result from other aspects of jobs: 1. humidity. or illumination cause stress (Mackay & Cox. People experience stress when they have little influence over work procedures or the pace of the work (Cottington &House. Extreme levels of noise.
1984). Workers feel stress when they do not get the recognition or promotions they believe they deserve (Cottington et al. 4 . Perceived inadequate recognition or advancement. being insensitive to the needs of others or condescending and overly critical of the work other individuals do (Quick and Quick. Stress increases when an employee's boss or colleague is socially abrasive.Stress can result from other aspects of jobs: 3 Poor interpersonal relationships. 1986).
Unemployment is associated with stress. 1986). The sense of job insecurity is stressful. such as in people's loss of self-esteem and heightened blood pressure (Olafsson & Svensson.Stress can result from other aspects of jobs: 5 Job loss. 1986). . particularly if the employee has little prospect of finding another job (Cottington et al.
the structure and routines of a job. and the feeling of being useful and competent (Bohm & Rodin.Retirement • Retirement can be stressful because retired people have lost opportunities for social interaction and an important part of their identity. which again produces stress. They may miss the power and influence they once hand. In addition retired people often live on low incomes. 1985). .
• Life transitions tend to be stressful (Moos and Schaefer, 1986). Changing from one phase to another in life is called a transition; examples include: • Starting school • Moving home • Reaching puberty • Starting college, especially away from home • Starting a career • Getting married
Langer and Rodin (1976)
• A study carried out by Langer and Rodin (1976) attempted to discover the effects of giving people a greater sense of personal control. They compared two different wards in a nursing home for elderly people in Connecticut, USA. The residents in the two wards were of similar age, health and socioeconomic status, and they had been resident in the home for the same period of time on average (residents who were too uncommunicative or bedridden to take part were excluded from the study).
Langer and Rodin (1976)
• Both groups of residents were given a talk, but the issue of personal responsibility was strongly stressed with one of them and not the other. Furthermore, residents in this first group were offered a plant each for their rooms and were asked where they wanted it placed. Additionally, they were allowed to choose which night to go and watch a film. Residents in the other group were simply given the plant and told which night to go and see the film.
were in better health and fewer had died. when the researchers returned after eighteen months. . This study implies that having a greater sense of personal control actually helps to reduce stress.Langer and Rodin (1976) • Even this fairly minimal manipulation of personal control seemed to have a dramatic effect. more alert and. more active. Residents who were given a greater sense of personal control were happier.
Controlled experiments on the damaging effects of stress in human beings can be very unethical. nurses or research assistants (who collected the data) of the purpose of the study. Langer and Rodin took care to avoid demand characteristics by not informing the residents. The sample was very limited (elderly Americans living in a particular care home). . On the other hand.Commentary • • There are methodological and ethical criticisms that can be made of Langer and Rodin’s study.
Commentary • In this case. when the experiment was over. On the other hand. and it may be that being given a sense of control for three weeks. did more harm than good in the long term. we do not know whether the situation reverted to what it had been before. but actually improved it for those residents who were given a greater sense of control. then having it removed again. Langer and Rodin would argue that they did not harm anyone’s health. .
If it is true that a low sense of personal control (that is. There is also a lesson to be learnt when developing therapy to help people suffering from extreme stress. having a very external locus of control) can lead to stress. then in cases where this applies it may be beneficial for therapy to focus on shifting people’s locus of control from external to internal.Commentary • There are clear implications of this study for the way people are treated in residential homes. .
These conflicts are easily resolved but the more important the decision seems to be.Sources within the person • Approach/approach conflict • This is the conflict produced when the choice is between two good strategies. . the more difficult it is for the person to solve the conflict. For example needing to follow a diet and wanting to eat a fattening cake.
Patients might even change their doctor in the hope that they will be given an easier choice. For example. . the choice between two equally harrowing treatments for an illness. They might even get somebody else to make the decision for them. Patients often delay making a choice and might easily change their minds repeatedly.Sources within the person • Avoidance/Avoidance conflict • This is the conflict produced when the choice is between two bad strategies. This conflict is difficult to resolve and very stressful.
For example giving up smoking might mean a gain in weight.Sources within the person • Approach/Avoidance conflict • This is when a single goal has good points and bad points. .
Overcrowded conditions increases conflict over privacy and the use of family resources.Sources in the family • Interpersonal conflict can arise from financial problems. . and death in the family. from inconsiderate behaviour. and from opposing goals. such as the Bathroom. illness. Major sources of stress in the family are the addition of a new family member. infirmity.
There are easy babies and difficult ones. which are called temperaments (Buss & Plomin. bathing. Each baby comes into the world with certain personality dispositions. Babies react differently to feeding. • Parents may experience stress from their relationship with the baby. or his wife's and baby's health. But the father may also worry over money. or fear that his relationship with his wife may deteriorate.An addition to the family • Obviously the mother will experience much stress during pregnancy and after the birth. 1975). cuddling. and dressing. .
They resist new foods. Many traits continue for many years. . and bowel movements are hard to predict. hunger. routines. many others show some of these traits occasionally. Longitudinal studies have shown that children's temperaments are stable across time. although many difficult children show changes toward the development of easy traits (Carey & McDevitt. and people.An addition to the family • Difficult babies tend to cry a great deal. About 10% of babies are classified as difficult displaying most of these traits fairly consistently. and their patterns of Sleep. 1978).
An addition to the family • The arrival of a new baby can also be stressful to other children in the family (Honig. 1987). Much stress can be experienced in children aged two or three years old who do not want to share their parents with the new brother or sister. such as when the parents introduce new rules. Older children experience stress from the changes in the pattern of family interaction. . These children often show increased clinging to the mother and their sleeping and toileting problems also increase.
. They need to learn about the illness and how to care for their child. disability. and death • A working mother with a sick child will experience much stress. their families have to cope with stress over a long period. The family also needs to make difficult decisions. When children have a serious chronic illness. There is much expense and other children begin to feel left out. The amount of time needed to care for the child conflicts with other activities.Family illness.
The family's time and personal freedom are curtailed producing changes in interpersonal relationships. 1986). . If a principal breadwinner is ill there will be a strain on the family's financial resources. and death • Adult sickness can also produce much stress in the family.Family illness. the stress for those in the household can be severe. • If an elderly person who is ill or disabled must live with and be careful by relatives. disability. especially if the person requires constant care and shows mental deterioration (Robinson & Thurner.
Young children think death is reversible: the person will come back eventually. . and death • If a parent dies children under about five years of age seem to grieve for the lost parent less strongly and for a shorter time than older children and adolescents do (Garmezy.Family illness. 1980). Children's concept of death changes between four and eight years of age (Lonetto. 1983). disability.
Family illness. and death • An adult whose child or spouse dies suffers a tremendous loss. A mother who loses her only child loses her identity and role as a mother too. Bereaved mothers reported that they had lost important hopes and expectations for the future (Edelstein. disability. . 1976-77). 1984). The loss of a spouse is especially stressful in early adult (Ball.
Women who were assaulted in their teens appeared to run greater risk of developing arthritis and breast cancer in later life. while Male victims are more likely to develop diseases of the thyroid than men who were not abused as children. .Child abuse • The stress caused by long-lasting psychological effects of sexual abuse in childhood has been found to increase the likelihood of certain diseases in old age. 1.300 elderly middle-class participants were studied 12% of the women and 5% of the men reported unwanted sexual contact for childhood.
Child abuse • Breast cancer and arthritis were relatively common amongst participants who had suffered sexual abuse. in other words. so do not feature in studies of elderly people. but this was probably due to survivor bias. people with hypertension tend to die younger. Stein and BarrettConnor (2000). . However those abused were less likely to suffer from hypertension. the more sustained the abuse the higher the risk of developing the diseases.
. 2. 1987). 3. as when other people can overhear your conversation. Intrusion into personal space (Sarafino. Lack of control over interpersonal interaction. such as seats.Environmental stress • Crowded conditions can be stressful for three reasons: 1. The restricted ability to move about freely or reduced access to resources.
. 1988).Environmental stress • People exposed to hazardous substances in their environment worry for years about what will happen to them (Baum. where a nuclear accident had happened suffered more stress more than a year after the accident than other residents near a similar facility (Fleming et al. • People who lived near the three mile Island power plant in Pennsylvania. . 1982).
Work or the Environment.produce stress Source of stressors can be Family (as when trying to cope with a newborn baby or when looking after a sick relative).response to stresssor . • Stress response .Stressors and stress response • Stressors .
e. noise. pain. feelings. Individual differences.g. difficulties with a loved one or contact with a hated one.g. • But not straightforward .heat can be relaxing and crowds can be exciting. . • internal . heat.e. thoughts. crowding.external .Stressors and stress response • Stressors .
g. stuck on underground train without being informed.not sure what is happening. . e. Marriage (+ve) – Controllable or predictable – ambiguous .Divorce (-ve).Other factors • Other factors • Event – negative .
even though they had been exposed to the crowded condition longer. control the situation. showed less stress. • Being able to choose seat. reduced the stress.Lundberg (1976) • Using urine samples Commuters on crowded trains more stressed than in empty trains • but those that had been on the train since the start. .
• Detached from others Avoided not only ferry travel. Immediate aftermath . • 2) Avoidance or numbing reactions. Onset can be several months later. • Most of the children reported intrusive thoughts and some experienced full-blown flashbacks. Just as severe. • 1) Re-experiencing phenomena.avoided shower or bath. but also the sea.reappear and disappear. Cyclical .traumatic stress disorder and 'The Herald of Free Enterprise'.Post . .
.Role ambiguity 2.Ambiguity • Ambiguity can cause stress. Two types of ambiguity are: 1.Harm ambiguity.
for instance when there are no clear guidelines. .Role ambiguity • Role ambiguity can occur in the workplace. standards for performance and no clear consequences. Role ambiguity is stressful because people are uncertain about what actions and decisions to make.
1984). A person who is seriously ill and has no clear information might draw hope from this ambiguity. believing that they will get well. Another person in the same situation may believe that people are deliberately giving ambiguous information because the prognosis is poor.Harm ambiguity • Harm ambiguity occurs when people are not sure what to do to avoid harm. beliefs and general experience (Lazarus and Folkman. . Stress will depend upon the person's personality.
Behavioural 2.Controllability • Controllability is another factor that will affect the perception of stress.Cognitive. 1979). People tend to appraise uncontrollable events as being more stressful than controllable events (Miller. There are two types of control: 1. .
• In the case of cognitive control.Controllability • Behavioural control means performing some action. . being unable to take a tablet for a headache will make experiencing a headache less stressful. we can affect the impact of the events by using some mental strategy. such as distraction or by developing a plan to overcome the problem. For example.
Link between stress and arousal .
OUR BODY’S REACTION TO STRESS (GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME (GAS)) • ALARM REACTION • RESISTANCE OR ADAPTATION • EXHAUSTION .
ALARM REACTION • MUSCLES TENSE • HEART BEATS FASTER • THE BREATHING AND PERSPIRATION INCREASES • THE EYES DILATE • THE STOMACH MAY CLENCH .
RESISTANCE OR ADAPTATION • FATIGUE • CONCENTRATION LAPSES • IRRITABILITY AND LETHARGY .
EXHAUSTION • DECREASED STRESS TOLERANCE • PROGRESSIVE MENTAL AND PHYSICAL EXHAUSTION • ILLNESS AND COLLAPSE .
self-destructive thoughts . bowel problems. stomach ache. withdrawal. etc.Severe Exhaustion Stage • Chronic sadness or depression • Chronic mental and physical fatigue • Chronic stress related illnesses (headache.) • Isolation.
1 The General Adaptation System .Figure 9.
. would produce more emotion than a gradual increase.Evaluation of GAS • A problem for GAS is that some stressors elicit a stronger emotional response than others do. for example. A sudden increase in temperature. The theory does not take account of psychosocial processes.
Evaluation of GAS
• Another problem for GAS is that cognitive appraisal is not taken account of. A study by Katherine Tennes and Maria Kreye (1985) found that intelligent schoolchildren experienced more stress on the day of an exam than unintelligent schoolchildren. Cortisol levels were measured in urine samples taken on regular school days and on days when tests were given. Intelligence test scores were obtained from school records. The results suggest that brighter children are more concerned about academic achievement.
Evaluation of GAS
• To summarise, the GAS incorrectly assumes that all stressors produce the same physiological reactions and fails to take account of psychosocial factors in stress. Even so the GAS is basically a valid model of stress.
Lazarus’s Cognitive Theory
Selye assumed that stress depended only on the intensity of the stressor. Stressor
Lazarus proposed that a mental process determines whether stress occurs.
G. A. S.
Healthy Adaptation or Illness
then consider options: problem-focused or emotion-focused coping strategies. . or challenge (chance to grow).Lazarus and Folkman’s Theory Stressor Primary Appraisal: Is Stressor Negative? Can be negative if it involves harm or loss. threat. Yes No No Stress Secondary Appraisal: Can I Control the Situation? If coping resources are adequate.
. resentment. grief. • Behavioral Component: Coping strategies (both behavioral and mental)—problem focused and/or emotion-focused. excitement (if stress is from challenge). The level of stress we experience depends mainly on the adequacy of our resources for coping and how much they will be drained by the stressful situation.Lazarus and Folkman’s Theory The Stress Response • Physiological component: Arousal. fear. hormone secretion. • Emotional Component: Anxiety.
the environment produces stressors and the individual finds ways to deal with these. Whether a person considers that they have the resources to meet the demand of the stressor . Stress is a two way process.Cognitive appraisal • Lazarus and Folkman (1984) propose a model that emphases the transactional nature of stress. • Cognitive appraisal is a mental process by which people assessed two factors: 1. Whether a demand threatens their well being 2.
Primary 2.Secondary. .Cognitive appraisal • There are two types of appraisal: 1.
Primary appraisal • During the primary appraisal stage a person will be seeking answers as to the meaning of the situation with regard to their well being.It is stressful. One of three types of appraisals could be made: 1.It is good (benign-positive) 3.It is irrelevant 2. .
Primary appraisal • Imagine there was a snow blizzard. You might consider that the blizzard would not affect you. as you do not have to go to work the following day. . You might consider the blizzard a blessing because this means that your college exam would be postponed or you can go skiing! The situation could be stressful because you have few supplies and you need to get to the shops and driving would be hazardous.
Harm-loss 2.Challenge.Primary appraisal • Further appraisal is made with regard to 3 implications: 1.Threat 3. .
. There may have been an injury. The seriousness of this injury could be exaggerated producing a lot of stress.Harm-loss • Harm-loss refers to the amount of damage that has already occurred.
Threat • Threat is the expectation of future harm. for example the fear of losing one's job and income. Much stress depends on appraisals that involve harm-loss and threat. .
. and make more money.Challenge • Challenge is a way of viewing the stress in a positive way. The stress of a higherlevel job could be seen as an opportunity to expand skills. demonstrate ability.
Empathising with others who are in stress. An example of vicarious stress is a study. 1964). The film showed a right of passage for young adolescent boys in a primitive society in which the underside of the penis is cut deeply from the tip to the scrotum using a sharp stone. called "Sub-incision" (Speisman et al.Primary appraisal • The stress transaction can be vicarious. which involved showing college-student subjects a film. .
describing them as willing participants in a joyful occasion who "look forward to the happy conclusion of the ceremony.Primary appraisal • The subjects were divided into four groups. One group saw the film with no sound. and primitiveness of the operation." . danger. A third group heard a "denial" narration that denied the pain and potential harm to the boys. Another group heard a soundtrack with a "trauma" narrative emphasising the pain.
" Physiological and self-report measures of stress were taken. the operation is formal and the surgical technique. "as you can see. while crude. The physiological measure was of the heart rate during the viewing of the film. the narrator commented. is very carefully followed.Primary appraisal • The fourth group heard a " scientific" narration that encouraged viewers to watch in a detached manner-for example. The self-report measures were questionnaires that evaluated feelings of stress immediately after the film was shown. .
• Male Circumcision (Africa) .Primary appraisal • Those who heard the trauma narration reacted with more stress than the control group (no sound). those who heard the denial and scientific narrations reacted with less stress than the control group.
. Secondary appraisals include feelings of not being able to deal with the problem such as: • I can't do it-I know I'll fail • I will try. but my chances are slim • I can do it if I get help • If this method fails. • I can do it if I work hard. • No problem-I can do it. I can try a few others.Secondary appraisal • Secondary appraisals occur at the same time as primary appraisals. A secondary appraisal can actually cause a primary appraisal.
It is difficult for people to make appraisals whilst in shock as their cognitive functioning is impaired. Accidents can often cause a person to be in shock. .Secondary appraisal • Stress can occur without appraisal such as when your car is involved in an accident and you haven't had time to think about what has happened.
Eustress and Distress • Eustress – The pleasurable stress that accompanies positive events. For example. • Distress – The unpleasant stress that accompanies negative events. a person may receive a $10. .000 bonus and experience stress in deciding how to spend the money.
Individual Differences and Stress • Hardiness – Is a person’s ability to cope with stress. . are strongly committed to the activities in their lives. and view change as an opportunity for advancement and growth. • Optimism – Is the extent to which a person sees life in relatively positive terms. – “Is the glass half empty or half full?” – In general. – People with hardy personalities have an internal locus of control. optimistic people tend to handle stress better than pessimistic people.
3.Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman.Time urgency. 1974) • Type a 1. achievements orientation.Competitive. Do several things at once. . Self-critical. Always on the go.Anger/hostility easily aroused to anger. which may be overt or covert. 2. Impatient. No joy in accomplishments.
time urgency and hostility.Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman. 1974) Type b • Low levels of competitiveness. . Easy going philosophical.
. 1974) An experiment by Glass et al (1980) had participants playing a computer game against a confederate. A structured interview determined whether participants were type a or type b. A prize was offered. The game was rigged so that it could not be won.Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman.
1974) Half of each type were harassed by the confederate the other half played with that the confederate in silence. . Several physiological measures were taken. In the harassment condition type a showed more stress than type b. Both type a and type b participants showed increases in stress.Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman.
Behaviour is produced as a result of controlling personal stress. . They are more competitive and when insulted are more likely to be aggressive.Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman. 1974) Factors that play a part in producing type a behaviour are: • Intrapersonal. • Interpersonal.
The work ethic. 1974) 3 Institutional.Type a/type b (Friedman and Rosenman. 4 Cultural. A demanding boss or teacher. The is limited opportunity for promotion and therefore more competition. . The importance of having expensive status symbols.
Sense of purpose. III. Challenge . I.problems seen as an opportunity for personal growth.Suzanne Kobasa (1979) • People who can handle stress possess 'hardiness'. involvement. II.can you control events? (See Locus of control) Commitment . . There are three components Control .
high illness Vs low illness. . Using questionnaire. the low illness group had more hardiness.High stress executives 2 groups .Suzanne Kobasa (1979) • Kobasa (1979) .
Suzanne Kobasa (1979) • I. III. . Hardiness and social support correlate so what is attributed to hardiness could really be the effect of social support (Blaney & Ganellen. II. 1990). Unlikely to be one type of person all of the time. Problems People vary with their personality. Only looked at white professional American men .may not be true of other groups.
2 Causes and Consequence s of Stress .Figure 9.
.Common Causes of Stress: Organizational Stressors • Task Demands – Stressors associated with the specific job a person performs. such as the adequacy of temperature and lighting. • Physical Demands – Stressors associated with the job’s physical setting. Some occupations are by nature more stressful than others.
3 Workload.Figure 9. Stress. and Performance .
• Interpersonal Demands – Stressors associated with group pressures. • Role conflict occurs when the messages and cues constituting a role are clear but contradictory or mutually exclusive. leadership.Common Causes of Stress: Organizational Stressors • Role Demands – Stressors associated with the role a person is expected to play. • Role overload occurs when expectations for the role exceed the individual’s capacity. • Role ambiguity arises when a role is unclear. . and personality conflicts.
have been linked to stress. such as alcohol abuse. among other illnesses.Consequences of Stress: Individual Consequences • Behavioral Consequences – The behavioral consequences of stress. • Medical Consequences – Medical consequences affect a person’s physical wellbeing. • Psychological Consequences – Psychological consequences relate to a person’s mental health and well-being. may harm the person under stress or others. – Heart disease and stroke. .
• Attitudes – Stress can have a negative effect on job satisfaction. morale.Consequences of Stress: Organizational Consequences • Performance – One clear organizational consequence of too much stress is a decline in performance. organizational commitment. • Withdrawal – The most significant forms of withdrawal behavior are absenteeism and quitting. and motivation to perform at high levels. .
.Consequences of Stress: Burnout • Burnout – Is the general feeling of exhaustion that develops when an individual simultaneously experiences too much pressure and has too few sources of satisfaction.
The end .