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Quality Function Deployment


Quality function deployment was first developed in Japan in the Kobe Shipyards in 1970. Today more than 10,000 companies in America and West Europe are utilizing the techniques of QFD.
Automotive industry the furthest in implementation of QFD


What is QFD?

What is QFD?
QFD is an analytical process which provides an approach to deploying the voice of the customer through all aspects of the product development process.

What is QFD?
It is a planning tool used to fulfill customer expectations. A disciplined approach to product design, engineering, and production and provides indepth evaluation of a product.

What is QFD?
Using QFD for new product development always involves a cross-functional team with the skills necessary for designing the product, writing engineering specifications, purchasing materials, and planning the tooling and production work.

What is QFD?
The efforts of these teams eliminate rework and typically reduce development time by as much as 50%.

QFD helps identify new quality technology and job functions to carry out operations.

What is QFD?
This tool provides a historic reference to enhance future technology and prevent design errors.
QFD is basically a set of graphically oriented planning matrices that are used as the basis for decisions affecting any phase of the product development cycle.

What is QFD?

QFD results are measured based on the number design and engineering changes, time to market, cost and quality. QFD enables the design phase to concentrate on customer requirements, spending less time on redesign and modifications.

The QFD Team

Two Types of Teams

A. New product. B. Improving an existing product. Teams consist of members from marketing, design, quality, finance and production.

Team Meetings
A. The project manager and team members need to commit a significant amount of time, especially in the early stages. B. Priorities and the scope of the project need to be clearly defined and told to all departments within the organization so time can be budgeted appropriately. C. Duration of meetings vary depending on where teams members are coming from and what needs to be accomplished.

Benefits of QFD
Customer Driven

Reduces Implementation Time

Promotes Teamwork Provides Documentation

The Voice of the Customer

The Voice of the Customer

QFD begins with marketing to find out what exactly the customer wants from a product.

Sources for Determining Customer Expectations

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Focus Groups Surveys Complaints Consultants Standards Regulations

The QFD Team Must Continually Ask:

1. What does the customer really want? 2. What are the customers expectations? 3. Are the customers expectations used to drive the design process? 4. What can the design team do to achieve customer satisfaction?

Collecting the Data

Solicited Unsolicited Quantitative Qualitative Structured Random

Organizing the Data

Organizing the Data

The Affinity Diagram gathers a large amount of data and organizes the data into groups based on natural interrelationships.

The Affinity Diagram is ideally suited for most QFD applications;other data organizers include: Interrelationship Diagrams, Tree Diagrams, Cause and Effect Diagrams

Organizing the Data

Reasons to implement : 1. Thoughts are too widely dispersed or numerous to organize. 2. New solutions are needed to circumvent the more traditional ways of problem solving. 3. 3. Support for a solution is essential for successful implementation.

Constructing the Affinity Diagram

Phrase the objective Record all responses Group the responses Organize groups in an affinity diagram

Affinity diagrams

House of Quality

House of Quality
The primary planning tool used in QFD is the house of quality. Building a House of Quality

Hierarchy trees
A Hierarchy tree or Tree Diagram also illustrates the structure of interrelationships between groups of statements, but is built from the top down in an analytical manner. It is usually applied to an existing set of structured information such as that produced by building an Affinity Diagram and is used to account for flaws or incompleteness in the source data. Working down from the top a team can amendments at each level and the completed hierarchy can be drawn as shown below.

Hierarchy trees

Matrices and tables

The matrix is a tool which lies at the heart of many QFD methods. By comparing two lists of items using a rectangular grid of cells, it can be used to document a team's perceptions of the interrelationships that exist, in a manner which can be later interpreted by considering the entries in particular cells, rows or columns. In a prioritization matrix the relative importance of items in a list and the strength of interrelationships are given numerical weightings (shown as numbers or symbols). The overall priority of the items of one list according to their relationships with another list, can then be calculated as shown below.

Matrices and tables

Exterior Wall = Customer requirements

Left side = Voice of customer Right side = prioritized customer requirements Ceiling or second floor = technical descriptors

engineering characteristics, design constraints and parameters

Interior walls = relationship between customer requirements and technical descriptors Roof = interrelationship between technical descriptors Foundation = prioritized technical descriptors

benchmarking, technical difficulty degrees and target values