TEXTILE INDUSTRY WASTEWATER TREATMENT - AN OVER VIEW

Dr. M. RAMESH KUMAR, Dept. of Garment and Fashion Technology, Sona College of Technology, Salem 636 005.
IEI Salem Chapter on 26-01-2013
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SOURCES OF WATER
The world’s water is found in oceans and seas, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, glaciers and snowcaps in the polar regions in addition to ground water.

Distribution of water
Oceans and Seas Glaciers and Polar icecaps Fresh water

Percentage of water 96 - 97%
2 - 3% < 1%
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Inventory of Water at the Earth's Surface
Volume (cubic km x 10,000,000) 1370 29 5.3 4.2

Reservoir

% of Total

Oceans Ice Caps/Glaciers Deep Groundwater Shallow Groundwater Lakes Soil Moisture Atmosphere Rivers Biosphere

97.25 2.05 0.38 0.30

0.125
0.065 0.013 0.0017 0.0006

0.01
0.005 0.001 0.0001 0.00004
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Water Allocation Priority

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India’s Water Demand
Present water demand in India - 703 km3/year.

• • • •

For domestic use – 43 km3/year For industrial use – 37 km3/year For agricultural use – 550 km3/year India receives annual precipitation of about 4000 km3 • Only 35% of surface water is utilizable.
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Water Pollution
• Discharge of partially or untreated industrial effluent. • Discharge of untreated domestic sewage. • Mismanagement practice of solid wastes. • Unscientific use of synthetic fertilizers.
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Effluent
• Water is referred as wastewater (effluent) when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants Domestic Effluent Industrial Effluent

• Biologically Active Effluents • Landfill Leachates • Water Disinfection • Malodourous Effluents

• • • • •

Ammoniacal Wastes Coloured Effluents Hazardous Effluents Malodourous Effluents Recalcitrant Effluents
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Polluting Industries
• Pulp and Paper Industries • Dairy Industries • Slaughter Houses • Ceramics Industry • Fruits and Vegetables Processing • Fish Processing and Canning • Metal Plating Industries • Paint Industries • Pharmaceutical Industries • Refineries • Petrochemical Complexes

Textile Industries
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Discharge of Textile Industry Effluent

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Textile Industries
• Complicated Industry among other manufacturing Industries. • Second largest Employment Generator. • Textile account for - 17 % of Export Earnings - 14% of India’s industrial production - 4% to GDP • Third largest polluter in the world. • Erode, Tirupur and Karur are hub of textile sector.
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Textile Industries….
• More than 1 lakh commercial dyes are available. • Dye annual production approximately 10,00,000 tons. • Azo dyes account for 60 to 80% of the dyes consumed in textile processing • About 5200 organized bleaching and dyeing industries are in India & more unorganized industries are also available. • 50% industries at Tirupur, Karur and Erode Districts
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Government Action against Polluting Industries

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Wastewater Issues

Wastewater Issues

Need for treatment....,

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Need for treatment....,

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Need for treatment....,

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Fresh Water Scarcity
 Huge demand for fresh water due to rapid increase in population, coupled with civilization and expanding economy of the country-led to the depletion of ground and surface water. Poor Rainfall- lesser recharge of aquifer Availability of fresh water in the globe is fixed & limited Hence the fresh water requirement has become a matter for serious concern. There is a huge demand for fresh water.

Major Classification of Textile Dyeing Industries
- Woven fabric dyeing industry

- Knitted fabric dyeing industry
- Yarn dyeing industry - Printing industry
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Woven fabric dyeing industry

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Knitted fabric dyeing industry

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Yarn dyeing industry

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Printing industry

Rotary Printing

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Environmental Problems due to Textile Industries
• Even though Textile Industry plays an important role in Indian economy in multiple ways it also causes major environmental impact. • Erode, Tirupur and Karur districts are hub of textile industries in which more than ten thousand small and medium scale industries are functioning. • This super power continuously threatens the livelihood by discharging the effluent into river (Cauvery, Bhavani and Noyal) & near by canals (Kalingarayan canal ) • Hence, proper treatment is essential for a healthy atmosphere.
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Classification of Wastewater Treatment Methods
INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS

CHEMICAL

PHYSICAL

BIOLOGICAL

Chemical Oxidation/
Precipitation/Coagulation air flotation/Flocculation Hydrolysis/Neutralization

Adsorption, Filtration

Bioaugmentation Activated sludge Extended aeration

Stripping/ Sedimentation
Membrane technologies

Anaerobic processes
Rotating biological contactors SBR and trickling filters
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Solvent Extraction
Ion Exchange

Classification of Wastewater Treatment Methods
INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS

CHEMICAL

PHYSICAL

BIOLOGICAL

Chemical Oxidation/

Precipitation/Coagulation
air flotation/Flocculation Hydrolysis/Neutralization Solvent Extraction

Adsorption, Filtration

Stripping/ Sedimentation
Skimming Membrane technologies

Physical/Chemical processes if chemical Bioaugmentation agents as coagulating agentssludge are added. Activated Extended aeration Anaerobic processes Rotating biological contactors SBR and trickling filters
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Ion Exchange

Membrane Technology
• Micro filtration • Ultrafiltration • Nanofiltration • Reverse Osmosis Membrane
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Reverse Osmosis

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RO Membrane Technology

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KOCH MEMBRANE

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ROSA MEMBRANE ( FILMTEC)

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MEMBRANE SPECIFICATIONS
PARTICULARS KOCH MEMBRANE ROSA MEMBRANE

Membrane Materials of Construction Software Pore size Range of operating pressure Temperature pH

Thin Film Composite Polyamide

Filmtech Polyamide

ROPRO 0.1 Micron 30 - 40 bar
30 – 400C 2 – 11

ROSA 0.1 Micron 30 - 40 bar
30 – 400C 2 – 11

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Advantages of RO Membrane
• • • • • • • • • Highly efficient High recovery% Lower rejection% Lower maintenance cost Lower power consumption Lower pressure Cost effectiveness Easy to operate & Maintain Wastewater can be reused in Large proportion

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INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS
Feed wastewater stream

PRELIMINARY TREATMENT

Wastewater treatment process

PRIMARY TREATMENT

Conventional Treatment

SECONDARY TREATMENT

It’s a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes

ADVANCED TREATMENT

High-quality Treatment

To discharge or reuse/recycling
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INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS

Feed wastewater stream

Removal of grit, debris and excessive amounts of oils or greases.

PRELIMINARY TREATMENT

Wastewater treatment process

PRIMARY TREATMENT

SECONDARY TREATMENT

It’s a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes

ADVANCED TREATMENT Wastewater pretreatment plant. To discharge or reuse/recycling
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INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS

Feed wastewater stream PRELIMINARY TREATMENT PRIMARY TREATMENT The reached removal is up to 85-95% of BOD and SS & 65% of COD.

Wastewater treatment process

SECONDARY TREATMENT
ADVANCED TREATMENT

It’s a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes

To discharge or reuse/recycling
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INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS
Feed wastewater stream

PRELIMINARY TREATMENT Membrane separation Wastewater treatment process PRIMARY TREATMENT

SECONDARY TREATMENT

Removal of : •Additional organic and suspended solids. •Nitrogenous Oxygen Demand (NOD) •Nutrients •Toxic materials

It’s a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes

ADVANCED TREATMENT

Also called “Tertiary Treatment”
To discharge or reuse/recycling

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TREATMENT METHOD
WASH WATER PLANT TREATMENT SCHEME
• • • • PRIMARY TREATMENT (PHYSICO-CHEMICAL) SECONDARY TREATMENT (BIOLOGICAL) TERTIARY TREATMENT (PHYSICO-CHEMICAL) UF/RO RECYCLING PLANT

DYE BATH PLANT
• FIVE EFFECT FALLING FILM EVAPORATOR • EVAPORATOR AND SALT RECOVERY PLANT

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SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF WASHWATER PRIMARY TREATMENT
FLASH MIXING TANK

RAW EFFLUENT FROM MEMBER UNITS ( TDS < 2100mg / lit)

LIME, FeCl2, POLY

RECEIVING SUMP

EQUALISATION TANK CLRIFLOCCULATOR

SLUDGE SUMP

PRIMARY OUTLET TO BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT CLARIFIED EFFLUENT SUMP

FILTER PRESS

THICKENER

SLUDGE TO SLUDGE STORAGE YARD

CENTRIFUGE

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PRIMARY TREATMENT
RECEIVING SUMP • Wash water effluent received and screened. EQUALISATION TANK • The effluent is homogenized with high speed floating aerators. FLASH MIXING TANK • Coagulant and flocculent addition, Such as Lime , FeCl2 and Poly electrolyte.
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SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF SECONDARY TREATMENT (BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT)
FROM PRIMARY OUTLET NUTRIENTS

AIR SUPPLY
SECONDARY CLARIFIER

AERATION TANK RETURN ACTIVATED SLUDGE

TO TERTIARY TREATMENT

EXCESS TO THICKENER

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SECONDARY TREATMENT (BIOLOGICAL)

SECONDARY CLARIFIER • The mixed liquor from the biological rector is sent to secondary clarifier for settling the bio mass and a portion is pumped to biological rector for reactivation.
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TERTIARY TREATMENT
To improve the quality of secondary treated effluent

• • • • •

By reducing the suspended solids. By reducing the colloidal particles. By destroying the micro organism. By reducing the alkalinity. By reducing the color and metal ions.
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SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF TERTIARY TREATMENT
FLASH MIXING TANK LIME, FeCl2, POLY FROM BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT FILTER PRESS

TERTIARY CLARIFIER

THICKENER SLUDGE TO SLUDGE YARD

SLUDGE SUMP

COLLECTION TANK TO RO PLANT DUAL MEDIA FILTER
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MEMBRANE BASED RECYCLING PLANT
ULTRAFILTRATION

• It will remove the colloidal particles, silica, suspended solids, biological matters (bacteria, Algae, Fungi) and also to reduce the total organic compounds.
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BAG FILTER 100μ

PG

AV
PG PG PT PT

AV AV
PT PG

AV

AV FT

AV

ULTRAFILTRATION SYSTEM
PG PT

UF RECIRCULATION PUMP FT

UF FEED TANK

CIP BACK FLUSH PUMP

UF PERMEATE TANK

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REVERSE OSMOSIS WORKING STRATEGIES
Parameter
Pressure TDS

Stage I
14 kg/cm2 2500 – 3000 mg/l

Stage II
40 kg/cm2 > 3000 mg/l

Recovery

75%

60% Overall – 90%
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REVERSE OSMOSIS - I
PRESSURE VESSEL 1 ANTI SCALANT MICRON FILTER 5
PG

μ

PRESSURE VESSEL 2 PRESSURE VESSEL 3 PRESSURE VESSEL 4 PRESSURE VESSEL 5

PG

AV

PRESSURE VESSEL 6 PRESSURE VESSEL 7

AV
ORP

PT PG

PRESSURE VESSEL 8 PRESSURE VESSEL 9
PG

SDI PT

PRESSURE VESSEL 10 PRESSURE VESSEL 11
PT

HCl

SMBS

PG

PRESSURE VESSEL 12 HIGH PRESSURE PUMP PRESSURE VESSEL 13

PG

FROM RO CIP
PT

MICRON FILTER 10 μ

FT UF PERMEATE TANK FEED PUMP TO RO II FEED RO ROCIP CIP CIP PUMP

FT

PERMEATE TO STORAGE TANK

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RO Feed and Permeate
RO Permeate A nt is H S ca CI M le BS nt 27 m3/h (90%) Feed 30m3/h

MCF

HPP HPP

HPP RO I, 2nd Array RO II, 1st Array

HPP

RO Feed
Tank

Feed Pump

MCF
RO I, 1st Array RO II, 2nd Array RO Reject

RO flow m³/hr RO Feed Flow RO Permeate Flow RO Reject Flow RO Recovery %

3m3/h (10%)

- 30.00 m³/hr - 27.00 m³/hr - 3.00 m³/hr - 90.00 %

No. of RO Elements used RO Stage I 48 Elements RO Stage II 15 Elements Total 63 Elements

RO Array Classification RO Stage I 5 X 6: 3 X 6 RO Stage II 2 X 5: 1 X 5 RO – 1, 5 vessels and 3 vessels (48 elements) Stage – I, Feed 5 membranes Stage – II, Feed 3 membranes RO – II, 2 vessels and 1 vessel (15 membranes) Stage – I, Feed 2 membranes Stage – II, Reject 1 membrane
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Comparison of Raw effluent, RO Feed and Permeate
RO Permeate value KOCH ROSA

Parameters

Raw Effluent (ppm)

RO Feed (ppm)

TDS COD BOD Cl¯ Ca2+ Mg2+ Na+ K+

6080.00 700.00 200.00 3250.00 45.00 25.00 2250.00 8.00

6357.00 50.00 6.00 3380.00 50.00 25.00 2363.00 5.00

110.13 6.61 4.82 61.64 0.16 0.08 42.75 0.12

244.28 8.31 5.52 133.56 0.54 0.28 91.49 0.69

NH4+
HCO3¯ SO42NO3¯ SiO2

8.00
700.00 338.00 7.80 20.50

0.60
300.00 350.00 5.00 15.00

0.03
7.27 1.08 0.42 0.26

0.33
9.61 5.27 2.02 0.42 68

Comparison of RO Feed and RO Permeate
7000

6000
RO Permeate Values in ppm

RO Feed RO Permeate - ROSA

5000

RO Permeate - KOCH

4000

3000

2000

1000

0 TDS COD BOD Cl¯ Ca2+ Mg2+ Na+ K+ NH4+ HCO3¯ SO42- NO3¯ SiO2 Parameters

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CONCLUSION
• The overall performance of Reverse Osmosis Membranes is better in Textile industry. • The Reverse Osmosis Membrane treatment is very effective in Textile industry. • RO membrane was found to be more efficient and economical.
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CONCLUSION • 90% - 93% of RO Permeate water can be used for recycling. • Remaining 7% - 10% RO Reject water can be sent to Solar evaporation/Multiple evaporation for salt recovery.
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LET US MAKE OUR NATION

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